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[en] The contributions of this collective book address ways to conciliate challenges faced by islands regarding their own specific environment and their energy issues. The authors first discuss the characteristics of energy in islands through a discussion of criteria of analysis of the insular energy issue, an analysis of correlation of criteria, and a characterisation of the insular energy issue. Then, they consider the fragility and assets of islands regarding energy resources: dependence on fossil energies, biomass as a local and multi-faceted local resource, wind resources as a possible solution of problems faced by islands, and solar energy as an under-estimated solution. The third part focuses on electric power production in islands: it discusses whether it is a sustainable solution, how to face isolation with the grid, and opportunities related to new technologies and to environmental stakes. The last part discusses how development policies could be an answer in an insular environment by relating energy policies and insularity, by considering opportunities related to energy needs, and by addressing issues of sustainable energy and demand management
[en] In mid-2010, the World Energy Council published a comprehensive report on shale gas. Given the slow pace of change and long lead-times typical to the energy sector, it is amazing to note how different the global outlook for shale gas is today compared to last year. A widely anticipated global gas market revolution has not happened outside of the United States. Moreover, a number of important issues which need to be addressed sooner rather than later have emerged and obscured the rising star of shale gas. One year on, the following key findings are emerging: - In general, the new estimates of shale gas resources are more conservative than those reported in 2010, mainly due to the differences in the methodology used by the data publishers. - Shale gas development can have a significant impact on the dynamics and prices on the natural gas market, and on gas-fired power generation. - Implications of increased use of shale gas will not be the same in all regions. In the short to medium term, however, no other region is likely to be able to emulate the success of shale gas in North America supported by its large and well-developed gas transport infra-structure and gas market structures. - Regulatory uncertainties slow down shale gas development in many countries. - Notwithstanding the environmental moratoriums in some countries, use of shale gas will continue to grow, keeping pressure on natural gas prices and the LNG market. - Development of shale gas in Europe can help diversify its gas supply sources moving away from the current heavy dependence on Russian gas. - Lower natural gas prices may lead to a significant shift toward the increasing use of gas in power generation and transport. - The policy discussion around the Energy- Water Nexus and Security and Sustainability is crucial for the future of shale gas
[en] This publication proposes a synthesis of a World Energy Congress which discusses the different meanings accessibility to energy can have in different country regarding basic energy services, economic growth and the struggle against energy poverty. It outlines that there is no unique solution to the problem of accessibility, but multiple, adaptable and complementary solutions. The importance of the mobilization of all energies and of energy efficiency for energy transition is outlined. This evolution should mean more electric power and less carbon. The authors also noticed the problematic relationship between technical feasibility and social acceptance, and that the pace of energy transition fundamentally depends on political decisions.
[en] India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to ensure that India is able to meet both economic and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. This paper describes the status of renewable energy in India as of DIREC 2010. It begins by describing the institutional framework guiding energy development in India, the main policy drivers impacting energy, and the major policy actions India has taken that impact renewable energy deployment. The paper presents estimates of potential for wind, solar, small hydro, and bioenergy and the deployment of each of these technologies to date in India. The potential for India to meet both large-scale generation needs and provide access to remote, unelectrified populations are covered. Finally, the enabling environment required to facilitate rapid scale of renewables is discussed, including issues of technology transfer and the status of financing in India.
[en] This report outlines the energy-related challenges that cities, particularly large and 'mega-cities', will face during the coming decades. It analyses the technical and policy actions that must be taken to meet these challenges and the role the energy industry and business can play in designing and implementing efficient solutions. The report is the result of a bottom-up process in which World Energy Council members carried out case studies on a comprehensive set of large to 'mega' cities, both in the developed and emerging world. It is complemented by an extensive literature study. An expanding number of large cities face significant energy-related challenges now and in the future. Technical and policy actions must be taken in order to meet these challenges. In this context, energy companies play a crucial role in the design and implementation of efficient solutions. The report studies the growth, development, and energy-linked issues of large cities; develops concepts for a secure and sustainable energy supply and distribution system, including transportation; and recommends norms and the necessary steps to ensure sustainability. Cities studied include Tokyo, Mexico City, Delhi, Toronto, Shanghai, Cape Town, London and Paris (a comparison), and the San Francisco Bay Area. The report contains data, facts, analysis, and proposals concerning: urbanisation and the challenges for a sustainable energy supply (Chapter 1); assessments of the potential and costs of innovative urban technologies (Chapter 2); and descriptions of the 'policy packages' aimed at overcoming the problems associated with cities (Chapters 3 to 5).
[en] In a global energy context characterized by increasing environmental and resource availability constraints, the adjustment potential offered by energy technologies is among the most promising options in the long term. Long term energy models are then precious supports for quantitative assessment of alternative energy scenarios. Among them, MARKAL type models are particularly suited to evaluate future technical choices. Based on an explicit description of existing and future supply and demand technologies, this modelling approach computes an optimal technical structure under various constraints. In this thesis we realise a set of prospective energy models dedicated to the French energy system and we propose a new approach to enhance the classic description of electric systems in MARKAL. The proposed enhancements deal with the need for flexibility for load following, and with the impact of wind power production on power plant selection. The modelling work includes a flexible electricity model, a multiregional west European electricity model and a global model of the French energy sector. (author)
[fr]Dans une problematique energetique marquee par des contraintes environnementales et de disponibilite des ressources primaires croissantes, le potentiel d'ajustement offert par les technologies fait partie des leviers les plus prometteurs sur le long terme. Les modeles de prospective energetique constituent alors des supports precieux a l'analyse chiffree de scenarios energetiques alternatifs. Pour l'evaluation des choix technologiques futurs, la modelisation de type MARKAL s'avere particulierement adaptee. Elle determine une structure technologique optimale sous diverses contraintes, a partir d'une representation explicite d'un ensemble d'options techniques actuelles et futures pour l'offre et la demande d'energie. Dans cette these nous realisons une serie de modeles de prospective energetique pour le systeme energetique francais et nous proposons une nouvelle approche pour ameliorer la representation classique des systemes electriques dans MARKAL. Les ameliorations proposees portent sur le besoin de flexibilite pour le suivi de la courbe de charge, et sur l'impact de la production eolienne sur les choix de moyens de production. Le travail de modelisation effectue comporte un modele electrique flexible, un modele electrique ouest europeen multiregional, un modele global du systeme energetique francais. (auteur)