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[en] Highlights: • An optimal planning model for DESSs in SOP-based active distribution networks is proposed. • The power flow controllability of SOP is modeled and optimally coordinated with DESS operation. • Inverter-based DG reactive power capability and short-term network reconfiguration at the hourly timescale are incorporated in the planning. • The proposed DESS planning model is formulated as a computationally efficient MISOCP problem. - Abstract: The integration of high-penetration distributed generators (DGs) with smart inverters and the emerging power electronics technology of soft open points provide increased controllability and flexibility to the operation of active distribution networks. Existing works on distributed energy storage planning have not fully considered the coordinated operation of these new power electronic devices with distributed energy storage systems, leading to less economic investment decisions. This paper proposes an optimal planning model of distributed energy storage systems in active distribution networks incorporating soft open points and reactive power capability of DGs. The reactive power capability of DG inverters and on load tap changers are considered in the Volt/VAR control. Moreover, soft open points are modeled to provide flexible active and reactive power control on the associated feeders. Hourly network reconfiguration is conducted to optimize the power flow by changing the network topology. A mixed-integer second-order cone programming model is formulated to optimally determine the locations and energy/power capacities of distributed energy storage systems. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model is validated on a modified IEEE 33-node distribution network. Considering soft open points, DG reactive power capability, and network reconfiguration, the results demonstrate the optimal distributed energy storage systems planning obtained by the proposed model achieves better economic solution.
[en] The paper under study presents the concept of major prospects of non autonomous micro grids installed in a certain locality. This paper is divided into three main phases. Phase one shows the basic background that is required for the installment of micro grid in a particular area. This section discusses the primary factors or prerequisites that are required for the existence and operation of micro grids. Phase two elaborates the major profitable applications and benefits that developing and developed states get by using micro grids in an area where utility grid is already functioning. Final phase explains the basic improvement in the quality of supply from micro grid after its installment. It also throws light on afterwards impact on society with this system; such impacts include reliability, tariff rates, economics etc. (author)
[en] Highlights: • An automated search for reaction systems suitable for thermochemical energy storage was performed. • Algorithm to build reaction systems for thermochemical energy storage is presented. • Close to 1000 possible reaction systems for 5 different reactive gases were found. • The VIENNA TCES-database for thermochemical energy storage materials is presented. - Abstract: Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) is considered as an emerging green technology for increased energy utilization efficiency, thereby achieving a reduction of greenhouse gases. Various reaction systems based on different substance classes (e.g. hydrates, hydroxides, oxides) were suggested and investigated so far. Nevertheless, the number of know reactions which are suitable is still limited, as the main focus concentrates on the investigation of a handful known substances, their further improvement or applicability. To find novel promising candidates for thermochemical energy storage and also to allow for a broader view on the topic, this work present a systematic search approach for thermochemical storage reactions based on chemical databases. A mathematical search algorithm identifies potential reactions categorized by the reactant necessary for the reaction cycle and ranked by storage density. These candidates are listed in the online available VIENNA TCES-database, combined with experimental results, assessing the suitability of these reactions regarding of e.g. decomposition/recombination temperature, reversibility, cycle stability, etc.
[en] The concept of 'disruptive innovation' is a management tool that provides a framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of technology markets, especially their sometimes acute response to innovation. The concept was used in a preliminary assessment of a number of energy technologies, including renewable energy technologies and energy storage, as well as nuclear technologies, as they interact in industry and the marketplace. The technologies were assessed and perspectives were provided on their current potential for innovation to disrupt the value networks behind electricity markets. The findings indicate that this concept may provide useful guidance for the planning of technology development. (author)
[en] Rather than improve the load following capability of the fuel and core control systems of their reactors, the Soviet Union is looking at ways of maintaining a full load on the core through pumped storage and the use of heat accumulators. (author)
[en] An international spectrum of topical reviews and innovative articles of contemporary interest on various forms of energy and power such as solar, bioconversion, wind, ocean, hydro and geothermal is presented. Socio-economic and environmental aspects of energy utilization are also included. The exposition is at a level intermediate between text books and original papers. This volume contains 11 papers out of which 2 fall within the subject scope of INIS and are added to the INIS database. (M.G.B.)
[en] This book gives popular answers to questions concerning the characteristics, origin, conversion and utilization of energy. The forms of energy, energy sources, power generation, natural energy conversion processes, energy consumption, and energy transport and storage are illustrated. (orig.)
[de]Das Buch geht in allgemeinverstaendlicher Form auf die Fragen ein, was Energie ist, woher sie stammt und wie sie gewonnen und den Beduerfnissen des Menschen nutzbar gemacht werden kann. Anschaulich werden die Erscheinungsformen der Energie, Energiequellen, Energiegewinnung, Energieumwandlung in der Natur, Energieverbrauch sowie Energietransport und -speicherung beschrieben. (orig.)
[en] Highlights: • Sharing economy as new business model for Energy Storage Operators. • More attractiveness of Battery Storage Systems. • Optimal Dimensioning of Battery Storage Systems for sharing economy application. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESS) are the candidate solution to integrate the high amount of electric power generated by volatile renewable energy sources into the electric grid. However, even though the investment costs of some ESS technologies have decreased over the last few years, few business models seem to be attractive for investors. In most of these models, ESS are applied only for one use case, such as primary control reserve. In this study, a business model based on the sharing economy principle has been developed and analyzed. In this model, the energy storage operator offers its storage system to different kinds of customers. Each customer uses the ESS for their single use case. A set of different use cases has been identified to make the operation of the ESS profitable (e.g. peak shaving, self-consumption and day-ahead market participation). Different kinds of stationary batteries (lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur and vanadium redox-flow) have been considered as energy storage technologies, which differ both in their investment costs and their technical properties, such as round-trip efficiency. The simulation of the business model developed showed that a sharing economy-based model may increase the profitability of operating a battery storage system compared to the single use case business model. Additionally, larger battery dimensions regarding power and capacity were found to be profitable and resulted in an increased revenue stream.
[en] Highlights: • We present a MILP to co-optimize generation, transmission, and storage investments. • We find significant value in co-optimized storage via investment deferrals. • Operational savings from bulk services are small relative to investment deferrals. • Co-optimized energy storage significantly reduces prices associated with RPS. - Abstract: Worldwide, environmental regulations such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are being broadly adopted to promote renewable energy investments. With corresponding increases in renewable energy deployments, there is growing interest in grid-scale energy storage systems (ESS) to provide the flexibility needed to efficiently deliver renewable power to consumers. Our contribution in this paper is to introduce a unified generation, transmission, and bulk ESS expansion planning model subject to an RPS constraint, formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear program (MILP) optimization model, which we then use to study the impact of co-optimization and evaluate the economic interaction between investments in these three asset classes in achieving high renewable penetrations. We present numerical case studies using the 24-bus IEEE RTS-96 test system considering wind and solar as available renewable energy resources, and demonstrate that up to $180 million/yr in total cost savings can result from the co-optimization of all three assets, relative to a situation in which no ESS investment options are available. Surprisingly, we find that co-optimized bulk ESS investments provide significant economic value through investment deferrals in transmission and generation capacity, but very little savings in operational cost. Finally, we observe that planning transmission and generation infrastructure first and later optimizing ESS investments—as is common in industry—captures at most 1.7% ($3 million/yr) of the savings that result from co-optimizing all assets simultaneously.
[en] The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R"2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R"2, 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants