Results 11 - 20 of 984
Results 11 - 20 of 984. Search took: 0.018 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] This report describes the collection and characterization of airborne particles from a number of fusion-related processes including cutting of stainless steel, vaporization of targets in two inertial confinement fusion devices, debris from the walls of a magnetic confinement device, plasma spraying for applying metal coatings, and burning of lithium metal. Such information on particle formation is needed to plan adequate respiratory protection for workers, predict the life expectancy and performance of reactor components, and develop effective cleanup and maintenance procedures. (orig.)
[en] We give a detailed description of the energy balance equation for a stand-alone hybrid solar–wind power generating system. The dimensions of the power generator and the energy capacity of a buffer battery (used as an energy storage system) are chosen to suit a known consumer's profile. Future applications of the mathematical model developed and analogies with a similar hydrodynamic problem are discussed. (paper)
[en] A brief overview is given of the research activities of the Dutch association for energy distribution companies EnergieNed in the field of energy storage techniques, carried out within the framework of the long-range programme Study and Research (MSO, abbreviated in Dutch)
[en] A superconductor flywheel energy storage(SFES) system is mainly act an electro-mechanical battery which transfers mechanical energy into electrical form and vice versa. SFES system consists of a pair of non-contacting High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) bearings with a very low frictional loss. But it is essential to design an efficient HTS bearing considering with rotor dynamic properties through correct calculation of stiffness in order to support a huge composite flywheel rotor with high energy storage density. Static properties of HTS bearings provide data to solve problems which may occur easily in a running system. Since stiffness to counter vibration is the main parameter in designing an HTS bearing system, we investigate HTS bearing magnetic force through static properties between the Permanent Magnet(PM) and HTS. We measured axial / radial stiffness and found bearing stiffness can be easily changed by activated vibration direction between PM and HTS bulk. These results are used to determine the optimal design for a 10 kWh SFES.
[en] Highlights: • A review of power converter interfaces for electrochemical energy storage (EES) system is presented. • EES devices and their specificities regarding to integration with the electrical systems are also described. • Power converters are divided into standard, multilevel and multiport technology. • The smart storage concept and the interface requirements to integrate the EES devices are also reviewed. - Abstract: Energy storage concept that supports important technologies for electrical systems is well established and widely recognized. Several energy storage techniques are available, including an electrochemical energy storage system used to support electrical systems. These storage systems require interfaces based on power electronic converters for interconnection with an electrical system. This paper reviews the literature covering the various types of interfaces developed for electrochemical energy storage systems. Different electrochemical energy storage devices and their specificities regarding to integration with the electrical systems are described. . The various power converter interfaces that can be used for electrochemical energy storage systems are presented. These interfaces have been divided into standard, multilevel and multiport technology. The main characteristics and specificity of each topology considering its application to electrochemical energy storage systems are presented. The review also covers the smart storage concept and the requirements of the interface to integrate the electrochemical energy storage devices upon this concept
[en] 1. The effects of large scale electrical energy storage on the introduction of alternative energy sources (solar, wind) may depend on the following factors: a) The composition and utilization of the existing power plants. b) Types of locally available rate of electricity demand. c) The need for intermediate size stand alone facilities. 2. The storage may act as a deterrent to the introduction of alternative energies if there exists a large under utilized capacity of efficient base load plants. It may however facilitate the introduction of alternatives, where no large excess of this kind exists, and the predicted expansion rate may justify small scale modular addition of production and storage capacity. Availability of storage may facilitate deployment of alternatives in remote areas, in preference to long transmission lines. This may depend on favorable patterns of time correlation between availability of wind and solar solar energy on appropriate time scales: daily, weekly, local synoptic and seasonal. 3. Some of the electricity storage devices are associated with heat dissipation at useful temperatures (CAES, batteries, fuel cells). This creates a heat disposal problem, and at the same time, an opportunity for its utilization in association with the daily and seasonal heat storage. (author)
[en] Highlights: • An optimal planning model for DESSs in SOP-based active distribution networks is proposed. • The power flow controllability of SOP is modeled and optimally coordinated with DESS operation. • Inverter-based DG reactive power capability and short-term network reconfiguration at the hourly timescale are incorporated in the planning. • The proposed DESS planning model is formulated as a computationally efficient MISOCP problem. - Abstract: The integration of high-penetration distributed generators (DGs) with smart inverters and the emerging power electronics technology of soft open points provide increased controllability and flexibility to the operation of active distribution networks. Existing works on distributed energy storage planning have not fully considered the coordinated operation of these new power electronic devices with distributed energy storage systems, leading to less economic investment decisions. This paper proposes an optimal planning model of distributed energy storage systems in active distribution networks incorporating soft open points and reactive power capability of DGs. The reactive power capability of DG inverters and on load tap changers are considered in the Volt/VAR control. Moreover, soft open points are modeled to provide flexible active and reactive power control on the associated feeders. Hourly network reconfiguration is conducted to optimize the power flow by changing the network topology. A mixed-integer second-order cone programming model is formulated to optimally determine the locations and energy/power capacities of distributed energy storage systems. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model is validated on a modified IEEE 33-node distribution network. Considering soft open points, DG reactive power capability, and network reconfiguration, the results demonstrate the optimal distributed energy storage systems planning obtained by the proposed model achieves better economic solution.
[en] The EPSRC operates a number of research programmes relevant to the proceedings of EESAT'98; in particular the Energy Storage and Recovery Programme, which in 1998 has funded seven new projects totalling approximately Pound 1.5 million. For the foreseeable future, energy storage research will be funded through a major new activity in Renewables and new energy technologies. This paper gives the background to the Energy Storage and Recovery Programme, the thinking behind the new activity, and lists the projects funded. (author)
[en] The major purpose of this book is to set forth the fundamental properties of materials relevant to each form of energy and to suggest to materials scientists where their field of expertise may be of value in solving energy related problems. The book has 10 chapters, each of which reviews the basic properties of those materials that are important to a particular energy application and which identifies areas of research required for the development of new materials for that application. The first six chapters deal with methods of producing energy arranged in approximately the chronological order in which they have been or will be used. The last 4 chapters cover the materials aspects of energy conversion, storage, and transmission. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 10 chapters