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[en] The directly observed average apparent magnitude (or in one case, angular diameter) as a function of redshift in each of a number of large complete galaxy samples is compared with the predictions of hypothetical redshift-distance power laws, as a systematic statistical question. Due account is taken of observational flux limits by an entirely objective and reproducible optimal statistical procedure, and no assumptions are made regarding the distribution of the galaxies in space. The laws considered are of the form z varies as rp, where r denotes the distance, for p = 1, 2 and 3. The comparative fits of the various redshift-distance laws are similar in all the samples. Overall, the cubic law fits better than the linear law, but each shows substantial systematic deviations from observation. The quadratic law fits extremely well except at high redshifts in some of the samples, where no power law fits closely and the correlation of apparent magnitude with redshift is small or negative. In all cases, the luminosity function required for theoretical prediction was estimated from the sample by the non-parametric procedure ROBUST, whose intrinsic neutrality as programmed was checked by comprehensive computer simulations. (author)
[en] Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration
[en] Purpose: A review of the Patterns of Care Studies Process Survey data on carcinoma of the cervix conducted on patients in 1978, 1983, and 1988-89 was carried out to identify changes or trends in the demographics, evaluation, and treatment that might have occurred over this time period. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Studies conducted surveys on patients treated by radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma in 1978, 1983, and 1988-89. These surveys have compiled demographic and treatment data on a total of 993 patients. There is outcome data for the 1978 and 1983 surveys, but not for the 1988-89 survey because follow-up has not been collected yet. The demographic and treatment delivery data on all three surveys has been reviewed and analyzed and is the subject of this study. Results: There was no difference in the age distribution at the time of diagnosis of the patients in these surveys. The percentage of black patients remained constant in the three surveys, 19%, 17%, and 21%, respectively. The percentage of white patients was 76%, 78%, and 67%, but that of nonwhite/nonblack patients was 3%, 4%, and 12% (p < 0.001). The distribution of patients by stage was similar in the first two surveys. In the third survey, there was a decrease in the percentage of patients with Stage IA and IB (first = 35%; second 38%; third = 29%) with a concurrent increase in Stage IIIA and IIIB patients (first = 20%; second = 18%; third = 26%). The surveys showed a major change in the pretreatment evaluation tests used. There was a progressive decrease in the use of intravenous pyelogram (IVP) (86 to 42%), barium enema (58 to 32%), cystoscopy for patients Stage IIB and higher (64 to 52%), and lymphangiography (18 to 14%). The use of abdominal or pelvic computed tomography dramatically increased from 6 to 70% between the first and third surveys. The use of 60Co units decreased from 35 to 2% from the first to the third survey [6 to 0% for short source-surface distance (SSD) 60Co units]. Point dose calculations for the intracavitary therapy increased from 78% in the 1978 survey to 95% in the third survey. As determined by the total dose delivered to the paracentral points, more patients (75.1%) were treated according to the Patterns of Care recommended guidelines in the 1988-89 survey than in the 1983 survey (63.6%). Chemotherapy was given to 12% of the patients undergoing radiation therapy during the period of the third survey, but these data are not available for the first and second surveys. Conclusion: Review of the Carcinoma of the Cervix Patterns of Care studies discloses significant changes in the demographics, patient evaluation, and radiation therapy techniques during the period of the studies. The potential impact of these changes on treatment outcome cannot be determined at this time until long-term follow-up for the 1988-89 survey is available, but improvements in the processes of care should lead to improvements in outcome
[en] Highlights: → We use data assimilation BLUE technique. → We applied it to the problem of nuclear masses evaluation combining model and data. → We evaluate the improvement of accuracy using such technique. → We conclude that data assimilation can be used in this framework and that this technique is promising. - Abstract: This paper presents methods to provide an optimal evaluation of the nuclear masses. The techniques used for this purpose come from data assimilation that allows combining, in an optimal and consistent way, information coming from experiment and from numerical model. Using all the available information, it leads to improve not only masses evaluations, but also to decrease uncertainties. Each newly evaluated mass value is associated with some accuracy that is sensibly reduced with respect to the values given in tables, especially in the case of the less well-known masses. In this paper, we first introduce a useful tool of data assimilation, the Best Linear Unbiased Estimation (BLUE). This BLUE method is applied to nuclear mass tables and some results of improvement are shown.
[en] The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new algorithm for the prediction of contrast enhancement from test bolus data in cardiac multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). An algorithm for the prediction of contrast enhancement using test bolus data was developed. A total of 30 consecutive patients (15 male, 69.5 ± 9.6 years) underwent cardiac MSCT (12 x 0.75 mm, 120 kV, 500 mAseff.) with a biphasic contrast material injection protocol. Contrast timing was derived from a standard 20 ml test bolus injection. Based on the test bolus time attenuation curves, expected enhancement values were computed for the ascending and descending aorta and the pulmonary trunk and compared with measured data from the cardiac CT scan. At the level of the test bolus measurement in the ascending aorta, the corresponding attenuation values were 309.4 ± 49.6 Hounsfield Units (HU) for the predicted and 285.6 ± 42.6 HU for the measured attenuation, respectively. The mean deviation between predicted and measured CT values was 32.8 ± 48.2 HU (upper and lower limits of agreement 101.4/-53.8 HU), indicating a slight systematic tendency for overestimation. For 80% of the patients the prediction error was less than 50 HU. Prediction of contrast enhancement in cardiac MSCT from test bolus data is feasible with a relatively small mean deviation; 80% of the predictions were within a range that might be acceptable for routine clinical application. (orig.)