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[en] The well-known problem of finding explicit formulas for the expected return and risk of portfolios with general commission is completely solved. It is assumed that the commission depends on the asset and the asset position, and on whether the given position is opened or closed. For portfolios with only the budget constraint and initial commission, we prove that the function of expected portfolio return and portfolio variance function are bounded.
[en] Smart sensors and extensively configurable devices are gradually imposed by the automation market. Except for safety systems, they find their way into the next Instrumentation & Control (I&C) generation. The understanding and handling of these devices require an extensive Knowledge Management (KM). This will be outlined for security, testing and training. For legacy systems, security often relates to vetting and access control. For digital devices, a refined asset management is needed, e.g. down to board-level support chipsets. Firmware and system/application software have their own configurations, versions and patch levels. So, here, as a first step of the KM, a user needs to know the firmware configurability. Then, trainings can address when to apply patches, perform regression tests and on what to focus, based on accumulated experience. While assets are often addressed implicitly, this document justifies an explicit and semiformal representation of primary and supporting assets (the asset portfolio) and the establishment of an asset management system as a basis for a robust knowledge management. (author)
[en] In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of missions for the H-Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site, as its capabilities are being recognized as an increasingly important asset for the Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The sustainability of that asset was called into question in 2011, when funding from U.S. DOE's Environmental Management (EM) program became insufficient to sustain processing. Through the acquisition of new customers, funding was restored and H Canyon missions have seen new life. (authors)
[en] Risk obviously involves uncertainty. Uncertainty is the set of all outcomes, both favourable and unfavourable. The unfavourable outcomes represent risk, whereas the favourable ones represent opportunity. Thus, uncertainty can give birth to either, or both, risk and opportunity. Risk is also defined as the probability that an unfavourable outcome will occur. Similarly, opportunity is defined as the probability that a favourable outcome will occur. Uncertainty describes any situation that we do not completely control. Risk describes a situation with a probability of a negative outcome. There are several types of risk inherent in global energy projects, such as technical, cost, schedule, price, operating factor and political. Accepting risk and providing contingency to cover it is one form of risk control. Other forms of risk control include risk avoidance, risk sharing, risk reduction, risk transfer, insurance and risk containment. Energy projects have the potential to carry substantial risks and uncertainty. It is important to know how risk and uncertainty could affect expected results from the project and to identify the potential impacts on the investors (owner/operator, investing institutions and government). An analysis of risk and uncertainty will provide key information to allow decision makers to judge whether the project should proceed under the proposed terms. Such an analysis will also assist in negotiations and identification of terms that may mitigate risk or uncertainty for investors. For many energy projects, it is important to have the ability to analyse risk and find ways to best mitigate it, identify potential conflicts of interest and successfully negotiate related issues. It is recommended that investors incorporate an analysis of risk and uncertainty as part of their overall feasibility analysis of such projects. It is also recommended that investors identify the potential impact from identified risks and uncertainties on expected outcomes. Examples of risks and uncertainties related to projects include: – Risk and uncertainty associated with the market the project is attempting to capture. – Risk and uncertainty of investors’ revenues from the project. – Risk and uncertainty associated with the recipient’s costs and resource requirements. – Risk and uncertainty with regard to the recipient’s financial and/or credit status. Sometimes a financial guarantee or credit enhancement is required, (e.g. a debt service guarantee). – Risk and uncertainty that the project will be completed or built, when or as anticipated. – Risk that other expected outcomes may not occur as anticipated and that investors’ goals will not be achieved. – Risk and uncertainty of future legislative actions and regulatory change by any level of government that may adversely impact a project and its funding.
[en] This paper provides an assessment of potential economic benefits from deployment of small modular reactors in Canada. Previous studies on such assessments relied on parameters based on United States economic data. Therefore, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential economic benefits based on Canadian economic data. In this study, cost estimates of deploying a reactor in a province or territory are used in Statistics Canada's Interprovincial Input-Output simulation model, which is based on Canadian economic data, to assess the economic benefits for each Canadian province, and territory. The economic benefits assessed are gross output, tax revenues, and employment. The results indicate an increase in gross output, tax revenues, and employment. In addition, the results show a potential increase in opportunities for achieving the economic benefits. (author)
[en] In R.O.K, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) regulate nuclear facilities to strengthen cyber security. In this paper, after introducing concepts of critical digital assets (CDA) which are current object of regulation, vital digital assets (VDA) and zone, we discuss how the concept of zone could be applied when prepare a scheme for regulating VDA. There are many things to consider when develop a model to apply the concept of computer security zone, such as boundary of zone or internal communication. Now that we have identified VDA, we have only considered what model could be applied to prepare a scheme for regulating VDA. There are many things to consider when develop a model to apply the concept of computer security zone, such as boundary of zone or internal communication. Now that we have identified VDA, we have only considered what model could be applied to prepare a scheme for regulating VDA.
[en] Licensees are implementing cyber security measures gradually to establish the system for the operating nuclear facilities, but some of measures are security requirements to be considered from the development phase of CDAs such as logical access control, log function, security design, security test, configuration management, supply chain control, and acceptance test. Applying the above security measures to CDAs that are already in operation can cause not only design changes and operation delay but also conflicts between safety and security such as affecting system reliability and safety functions. This paper suggests cyber security activities during the life-cycle including the development phase of CDAs. The regulatory standards of domestic cyber security and lessons learned from review experiences of constructing facilities are referenced, and the IAEA, IEC international guidelines on cyber security of digital I&C, and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide are cited. Recently, as the NRC endorsed the NEI 13-10 on the graded approach for cyber security measures, this paper focuses on the cyber security activities for Direct CDAs during life-cycle, which many security measures are considered at the development phase. This paper suggests the cyber security activities during the life-cycle including the development phase of Direct CDAs. The nuclear cyber security should be systematically and effectively applied from the development phase considering the impact on system functions, the limitations on accessing and changing the system and spread of impacts. It is expected that CDAs can be protected through periodic assessments of the monitoring and robustness of implementation these security measures.
[en] To investigate the influences of different factors on spatial heterogeneity of regional carbon emissions, we firstly studied the spatial-temporal dynamics of regional energy-related carbon emissions using global Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi and applied geographical detector model to explain the spatial heterogeneity of regional carbon emissions. Some conclusions were drawn. Regional carbon emissions showed significant global and local spatial autocorrelation. The carbon emissions were greater in eastern and northern regions than in western and southern regions. Fixed assets investment and economic output had been the main contributing factors over the study period, and economic output had been decreasing its influence. Industrial structure’s influence showed a decrease trend and became smaller in 2015. The results of the interaction detections in 2015 can be divided into two types: enhance and nonlinear, and enhance and bivariate. The interactive influences between technological level and fixed assets investment, economic output and technological level, population size and technological level, and economic output and economic development were greater than others. Some policy recommendations were proposed.
[en] The article is devoted to the investigation of the possibility of applying new credit instruments for the implementation of technological innovations in machine building and other branches of the fuel and energy complex. The possibilities of using the new tool as an element of industrial policy in the program of import substitution of high-tech products have been considered. (paper)
[en] AREVA supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company with its 41,000 employees is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. The group is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. This brochure summarises the Group's activities and illustrates them with some key figures from 2014.