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[en] Pu-238 is a valuable heat source material used to manufacture radioisotope power systems (RPSs), which are needed to provide electrical power for space exploration and other missions. Before 1989, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) produced Pu-238 at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in nuclear reactors that are now decommissioned. From 1989 through 2009, existing DOE inventories of Pu- 238 were supplemented by quantities of Pu-238 purchased from Russia; however, supplies available for purchase from Russia are limited. DOE has restored domestic production to meet future demand; otherwise, NASA will be in danger of not being able to use RPSs in future missions. The Pu-238 Supply Program has the objective of reestablishing the domestic capability for producing Pu-238. In order to meet the quantities of Pu-238 needed to support NASA space mission and other federal users the ATR is being considered as an important asset to achieve the desired production of the radioisotope. In order to determine the constraints and parameters needed to maximize the production of Pu-238 at ATR a preliminary conceptual design target design was performed. The preliminary conceptual design had two principal goals: 1. Perform a trade study to determine an ATR target length that maximizes production as well as minimize the need to modify ORNL's target. 2. Evaluate the selected preliminary design from the standpoint of the ATR nuclear safety basis. (authors)
[en] Financial performance is an indicator of the company’s success in managing the finance functions. EVA method is very good to measure financial performance because it can describe the actual of company value. The object of this research is PT Kalbe Farma Tbk with financial data from the year 2012 up to 2014. This research uses the descriptive quantitative method. Based on computations, the EVA value of the company has fluctuated and positive. The positive value of EVA indicates that the company has the ability to create economic value added and rate of returns (operating profit exceeds the cost of capital). In other words, the company has created wealth for the shareholders. In this research, some recommendations are given to increase the EVA value. (paper)
[en] Measurements are carried out to obtain RDE River discharge data during the rainy and dry seasons as well as the water quality of the RDE River in general. This data is an input to the safety assessment of Demo Dispute Facility in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is also to complete the Safety Review that will be required at the time the Disposal Facility Demo is built, operational and post closure. The methodology that is done by survey method is by conducting observation, observation and measurement as well as data and information through direct field observation conducted every month during 2016. RDE River Flow measurement is done by Floating Method. The highest river flow is 125 ℓ/sec in upstream and 147 ℓ/sec downstream in April 2016. the lowest 25.5 ℓ/sec in upstream and 25.7 ℓ/sec downstream in January 2016. The water quality of the RDE River is categorized as water for agriculture and fisheries. (author)
[en] Biomass has attracted considerable attention as energy, economic, and environmental asset, as result of its abundance and range of properties. The use of mesoporous catalysts during fast pyrolysis has been a highly important route to improve efficiency as well adding value to biomass. The addition of titanium to molecular sieves increases the efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction by improving production and selectivity of products of interest. This study aims at analyzing the catalytic pyrolysis products of elephant grass using titanium catalysts prepared at different Si/Ti molar ratios, i.e., 25 and 50. The material was supported on MCM-41 for the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. The biomass pyrolysis reactions were performed in a micropyrolyzer coupled to a GC/MS analyzer. The Ti-MCM-41 samples were characterized by XRD, BET-specific area, and UV-visible. The distribution of pyrolysis products depended on process parameters such as temperature and catalyst type. The highest yield for hydrocarbon production, such as styrene, benzene, methylbenzene, and naphthalene, was observed at 600 °C using Si/Ti equal to 50.
[en] It is has a consensus that, for a nation to grow and develop in economic terms, an adequate supply of power should be available to provide its industrial sector as well as the needs of its people. Brazil did in the past make the decision to include the power generated from a nuclear source in its power generation matrix. The country today has two nuclear power plants in operation, Angra I and Angra II. The Angra I facility is nearly 40 years old and, should this country not manage to extend its lease of life, it should be decommissioned and taken apart, as provisioned for in prevailing legislation. In order to face the decommissioning costs of a nuclear power generation facility a sizeable amount of financial resources should be available to implement the decommissioning plan the operator is required to submit to the regulatory body. As the expected operating life of a nuclear power plant is of 40 years, some extensions were added to it to see the facilities go through successive and different governments and economic plans. This work studies some of the economic and financial aspects that go into the decommissioning of the Angra I power plant, pursuant to the IAEA documents published on the subject, covering different scenarios for yearly interest and the manner of the deposits, such as those of an uniform series of deposits and those of a growing and finite arithmetic progression. (author)
[en] This table aims to gather information on the amounts available to compensate potential victims of a nuclear incident in countries and economies having nuclear power plants and/or having ratified at least one of the international conventions on nuclear third party liability. In the table: Public funds correspond to the amounts provided from public funds beyond the Operator's Liability Amount to be made available by the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to such conventions, or by any public authority pursuant to applicable laws and regulations. International funds correspond to public funds contributed jointly by all the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to a pre-determined formula provided in the respective conventions. The amounts provided in the table corresponds to the total amount of the international funds calculated. For the CSC international fund, the amount has been calculated by the IAEA on-line calculator available at https://ola.iaea.org/ola/CSCND/index.html on the day the table was updated. SDR is a unit of account used by the International Monetary Fund and is based upon a basket of weighted currencies. The latest exchange rates of SDRs per currency units are available at www.imf.org/external/np/fin/data/rms_five.aspx. Interest and legal costs are not specified in the table.
[en] China is the largest cement producer and carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter in the world. The country has attracted too much attention in calculating and comparing its CO2 emissions. However, as the second largest CO2 emitter after the fire power industry, China’s long-term cement demand and cement-related CO2 emission projections were not fully studied. The Chinese government, however, committed that by 2020 and 2030, China’s per capita GDP of CO2 emissions would be lower than that in 2005 by 40–45% and 60–65%, respectively. In this paper, China’s cement demand in 2030 was projected based on the population size, urbanization rate, fixed assets investment, and per capita GDP. Furthermore, decoupling study in China’s cement industry was also involved based on the GDP and CO2 emissions during 2001–2015. We also used the diffusion rate of 12 types of CO2 reduction measures and two changed scenarios of clinker-to-cement ratio, to project the cement CO2 emission factors toward 2030 after determining the accounting scope. Meanwhile, the CO2 emissions of China’s cement industry through 2030 were projected naturally. The results showed that China’s cement output in 2030 will be approximately 2000, 1650, and 937 Mt. based on the fixed assets investment, urbanization rate, and per capita GDP respectively. The projected two scenarios cement CO2 emission factors were resp. 407.83 and 390.02 kg CO2/t of cement which were 42.6 and 45.1% lower than that in 2005. The cement CO2 emissions were projected to be in the range of 366 to 818 Mt. in 2030. Additionally, China’s total cement output value has been decoupling from cement CO2 emissions from 2012, which is mainly attributed to eliminating backward capacity, reducing excess capacity or the declining cement output. And decoupling economic from China’s cement CO2 emissions may change to be strong or weak decoupling in the near future. As cement production is one of the factors effecting cement CO2 emissions, the most important measure for controlling cement CO2 emissions is a reasonable capacity utilization rate. It is therefore important to control the growth of cement CO2 emissions by regulating the capacity utilization rate within a reasonable range. Eliminating backward capacity, removing excess capacity, controlling new capacity, staggered production, and the “going global” of cement equipment can have great impacts in controlling the total amount of cement output and CO2 emissions.
[en] Since the outbreak of the Covid-19 health crisis, Orano has implemented a set of measures to ensure both the health of its employees and the continuity of its customers' businesses, in compliance with the directives of national and international health authorities. At the reporting date of the financial statements, the only significant disruptions related to Covid-19 concern the group's mining activities. The Cigar Lake mine operated by Cameco and the McClean Lake mineral processing plant in Canada, which were stopped for the first time at the end of March with a resumption of production in September, were again phased out at the end of December in view of the development of the local health situation. No contract termination with customers or suppliers was noted due to the pandemic. One-off agreements have been negotiated with certain customers in order to reorganize deliveries beyond 2020 without prejudice to the parties. While the Covid-19 crisis does not affect the value of the group's industrial assets, it has severely disrupted activities, particularly in the Mining and Back End sectors. Despite these uncertainties and thanks in particular to the measures implemented, the group achieved an EBITDA rate of 25.3%, an improvement of +1.5 point compared to 2019. Activity preserved and operational performance improved despite Covid: - Order intake of Euros 1.9 billion and no impact of the crisis on the backlog; - Revenue down by -2.5% (bps) compared to 2019 due to production stoppages and postponements of activities, in connection with the pandemic; - EBITDA of Euros 931 million compared to Euros 900 million in 2019 (rate up to 25.3% compared to 23.8% in 2019). Positive net cash flow and improved liquidity: - Net cash flow of +Euros 144 million (compared to +Euros 219 million in 2019) and maintenance of a coverage rate of 100% of end-of-life cycle liabilities; - Net debt down to Euros 2.15 billion. Net income attributable to owners of the parent impacted by the health crisis: - Adjusted net income attributable to owners of the parent improved at -Euros 91 million (compared with -Euros 145 million in 2019) but impacted by the Covid and an additional end-of-life cycle provision; - Net income attributable to owners of the parent down to -Euros 70 million (compared to +Euros 408 million in 2019) reflecting the same effects and a lower performance of the financial markets in 2020. Financial outlook for 2021: - A recovery in revenue growth; - Consolidation of EBITDA rate between 23% and 26%; - Continuing positive net cash flow.
[en] Financial development is often expressed as a private sector initiative earmarked towards motivating economic growth and mitigating poverty. Nonetheless, the need for economic development accompanied by high industrialisation and commercialisation strategies has generated natural environmental effects which have raised enormous concern to green interest groups about whether all the seventeen sustainable development goals will be achieved. This paper investigated the environmental effects of financial development in OECD countries from 2001 to 2012 by employing static models and system GMM analysis. The study utilised foreign direct investments, domestic credit to private sector by banks and domestic credit to private sector as the three proxies of financial development. The effects of these measures of financial development were examined on carbon emissions and greenhouse gases (indicators of environmental quality) and environmental sustainability. In this setting, the findings of the research spotlight that domestic credit to private sector by banks shows a negative and significant relationship with carbon emissions, greenhouse gases and sustainability. Conversely, domestic credit to private sector and economic growth indicates a positive and statistically significant relationship with carbon emissions, greenhouse gases and sustainability. Foreign direct investment is positive and significantly connected with carbon emissions and sustainability but only shows a positive and not significant link with greenhouse gases. The evidence suggested by this analysis adds that the financial system should continue to add more initiatives which consider natural environmental perspectives in their current operations. This present study also confirms the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in carbon emissions (turning point, $109,820), total greenhouse gases (turning point, $74,280) and sustainability (turning point, $112,505). The finding that the turning point of carbon emissions is higher than that of total greenhouse gases indicates why introducing initiatives designed to curb growth of carbon emissions in the respective OECD economies is important.
[en] Soil displacement by tillage is a major contributor to the redistribution of soil particles within the soil profile. The extent of soil redistribution eventually has an effect on the performance of crop production. It is, therefore, valuable to investigate soil displacement by disc plough since it is known to be the widely used primary tillage implement in Ghana. Consequently, a study was conducted at the Livestock and Poultry Research Centre of the University of Ghana (LIPREC) with a tractor - disc plough aggregate. Using three ploughing speeds (5km/hr, 7km/hr and 9km/hr) and three ploughing depths (12cm, 15cm and 18cm), a 32 factorial experiment was designed for this study. The essential soil and tracer characteristics were verified. The movement of tracers inserted into the soil measure soil displacement in the x-y-z coordinate directions. The data was statistically analysed to establish the effects of ploughing speed and depth on soil displacement.Results from our experimental study showed that on the average the disc plough tillage moved soil particles through a distance of 59.8 ± 12.5cm. Ploughing speed and depth had significant effects (p ≤ 0.05) on soil displacement by the disc plough. Increasing ploughing speed generally led to increase in soil displacement with a wider mix. The study also showed that most of the tracers were spread within the region of 12cm above to 6cm below the original surface of the field. The disc plough mixes majority of the transported soil particles within this region of the tilled layer. At higher speed of 9km/hr the displaced soil particles were highly mixed within this region whiles at 5km/hr the displaced soil particles were concentrated within the upper 6cm. (Author)