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[en] This publication presents and comments various data and indicators related to or illustrating energy poverty in France in the second half of 2020. Different topics are addressed with, for each of them, a definition of the studied indicator, values and analysis of the indicator with, should the occasion occur, district maps, and additional information (source, scope, reading cautions). The addressed issues are indicators of quantification of energy poverty (assessment of the number of concerned households, household perception of energy issues), contextual indicators (energy prices, income poverty and poverty intensity, energy consumptions of the housing fleet, household energy expenses), indicators expressing the difficulty of households to pay their bills, indicators of follow-up of the various national financial arrangements
[en] This publication first describes how bio-methane is an essential gaseous renewable source of energy, by outlining how biogas production and bio-methane injection into the network represent a solution for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and by describing the different types of bio-methane injection sites and the different types of inputs used to supply these sites. Then, after a presentation of production facilities and their geographical distribution, and of some key figures regarding production capacity and injection into the network, this publication presents a focus on mobility (bio-NGV). Next, the regulatory framework regarding the feed-in tariff, the bio-methane traceability, and the compensation mechanism are presented, as well as the injection right and the adaptation of infrastructures. The last part presents the new solutions for renewable gases production: solid wastes pyro-gasification, hydrogen and synthesis methane, hydrothermal gasification.
[en] Several work sites where the first reactors of the third generation are being built have encountered major difficulties with several causes. This can, in large part, be set down to the absence, for twenty years now, of big programs of this sort in the United States and Europe. The costs of the first reactors of a new generation have ballooned. Thanks to accumulated feedback, this article shows how and why tomorrow's nuclear industry will be competitive, not only as it already is in Asia but also in other geographic zones. The range of economic results presented herein is coherent with public authorities' strategic analyses. The findings are: that a program for updating France's fleet of nuclear reactors is needed and should be started fast; that the closed cycle should be pursued; and that the first phase of the Cigeo Plan (for a nuclear waste repository) should be launched. (authors)
[en] Fuel is periodically replaced in nuclear power plants (NPPs), generating “Spent Nuclear Fuel” (SNF). The paper attempts to calculate the relationships between the costs and the sizes of SNF storage facilities. This is done by estimating reduced-form equations based on publicly available data. The values reported here should not be considered as the only possible outcomes; they are used here to understand relative NPP owner economic incentives. The paper finds that once the NPP has been decommissioned, and only the on-site dry storage remains, there might not be a cost reason (from the point of view of the NPP owner/operator) to move the SNF to centralised facilities. However, there is a consensus that centralised facilities (a) would be more safe and secure than dispersed on-site storage locations, (b) would facilitate final disposal, and (c) can reduce the risks perceived by local communities near SNF storage facilities. (author)
[en] Conclusion: • Nuclear power is one of the options available for alleviating the risk of global climate change. • NP potential contribution to GHG emissions reduction could be significant. • The nuclear option will require a number of actions by governments and international organizations. • The importance of slowing the demand growth and changes in the power generation by switching to Low-Carbon energy (nuclear energy) to reduce power section CO2 emissions. • Egypt’s 2030 agenda, introduces nuclear energy as alternative Low-Carbon energy source. • In contrast to fossil energy sources, Nuclear energy is available indefinitely and therefore play a key role in sustainable energy policy and the energy transitions in terms of environmental pollution and climate change. • NP can provide effective incentives for the cement industry to improve its energy efficiency and to reduce CO2 emissions. • Under a scenario that considers announced carbon mitigation commitments and energy efficiency targets, the cement sector would increase its direct CO2 emissions just 5% by 2030, for an expected growth of 20% in cement production over the same period. However, more ambitious action would be needed to achieve climate goals.
Report made on the behalf of the Commission for finances, general economy and budgetary control about the bill project, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, of budget execution and approval of accounts for 2019 (n. 2899). Appendix n. 18: ecology, sustainable development and mobility: energy, climate and after mines, public service of energy, funding of supports to communities for rural electrification, energy transition. N. 3011
[en] This publication reports the 2019 budget execution of payment credits and of commitment authority of some specific programmes (energy, climate and after mines, public service of energy) of the 'energy transition' and 'funding of supports to communities for rural electrification' special allocation accounts. It appears that the general execution is globally satisfying, and that no problem of budgetary sustainability has been noticed, despite some important errors regarding the anticipation of the evolution of some expenses. A second part proposes an analysis of the expected influence of the health crisis on these programmes and special allocation accounts. It presents the main implemented measures and outlines the various consequences of this crisis for the addressed credits. Some recommendations are stated to better protect public finances from the risk related to negative prices, and to claim for a new energy policy
[en] This paper comments the content of the French post-Covid recovery plan which aims at supporting the activity on the short term, notably in the field of energy with measures aiming at a direct reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (energy renovation of buildings, greening of the automotive stock), at investing in the nuclear sector (in skills and education, to support subcontractors, to finance research for the design of small modular reactors). The paper notices that nuclear energy is considered in this plan as belonging to green energies and technologies, but also recalls the need of decisions on the short term for the renewal of the nuclear fleet (support to the EPR2 programme, issue of the French security of supply).
[en] The objective of this study was to determine the reservoir of certificates of energy saving over the 2021-2030 period. Thus, it proposes detailed presentations of the different methodological approaches adopted to quantify there reservoirs: notion of CEE technical-economic reservoir, market approach, EMMY approach, CEREN approach for the industry, fleet approach for transport. Results are then discussed per sector: residential and office building, industry, transport, agriculture, and networks, and global results are also presented.
[en] Within the context of a prerequisite of decarbonization of the building sector in order to reach carbon neutrality, this report more particularly addresses the thermal as well as energy renovation, i.e. the building energy improvement and the evolution of heat and domestic hot water production sources towards the use of more efficient and low carbon equipment. The report also addresses stakes of adaptation to climate change during renovation operations. Four countries are more particularly examined: Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden. Policies adopted by these countries as well as their results are compared with the French ones. The study is based on a very large bibliography of reports and studies published on various aspects of the building sector, and results in a set of recommendations which concern the implementation of conditions of massification of energy renovation, the consistency of objectives of energy renovation and of reduction of vulnerabilities, a stronger integration of decarbonization of energy vectors in the renovation strategy, the development of instruments for co-ownerships, a better integration of renovation policies into territorial plans and programs, the implementation of a structural and consistent strategy for the renovation of the public building stock, and strengthened follow-up and assessment of building energy renovation
[fr]Avec 18 pc des emissions directes de gaz a effet de serre provenant du secteur des batiments et 36 millions de logements en 2019, la decarbonation complete de ce secteur est indispensable a l'atteinte de la neutralite carbone en France. Le rapport du Haut conseil pour le climat, 'Renover mieux: lecons d'Europe', analyse les politiques publiques et les solutions de quatre pays europeens (Allemagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni et Suede) et identifie des pistes d'action pour accelerer la renovation energetique des batiments en France. Il demontre et detaille le besoin d'un engagement massif et durable de l'Etat et du secteur prive dans les dix prochaines annees pour decarboner les logements et les batiments tertiaires en France. Cette mobilisation sera par ailleurs creatrice d'emplois stables et de rentrees fiscales. Le rythme des renovations energetiques - en moyenne de 0,2 pc par an - doit fortement s'accelerer pour atteindre 1 pc par an apres 2022 et 1,9 pc par an d'ici 2030. Pour le secteur residentiel, il s'agit de passer des 60-70000 renovations profondes effectuees annuellement (2012-2016), a 370000 renovations completes par an a minima apres 2022 et 700000 par an a partir de 2030, conformement aux objectifs fixes dans la Strategie nationale bas-carbone (SNBC). Si tous les pays etudies dans ce rapport constatent une amelioration de la performance energetique de leur parc de logements, seule la Suede a reussi une decarbonation quasi-totale du secteur. En tenant compte des differences de climat, la France apparait comme ayant les logements les moins performants par rapport aux autres pays. La performance energetique des batiments residentiels en France progresse a un rythme similaire a la moyenne europeenne, alors que celle des batiments tertiaires (bureaux, commerces et restaurants, ecoles et hopitaux) progresse moins vite. La Suede doit son succes a un effort continu sur plusieurs decennies, comprenant des normes exigeantes de performance energetique, des investissements dans les reseaux de chaleur et plus recemment vers le chauffage electrique avec pompes a chaleur, accompagne d'une taxe carbone. L'Allemagne se distingue par la diversite de ses politiques publiques, comprenant d'importantes subventions aux menages et aux entreprises conditionnees a l'atteinte de resultats avec un role fort de la banque publique d'investissement. Les Pays-Bas se distinguent par la gouvernance du secteur et la mise en valeur de solutions locales pour permettre la sortie du parc de sources de chauffage carbonees et l'elaboration de feuilles de route du parc public. Finalement, l'experience du Royaume-Uni sur la mise en oeuvre des obligations de renovations des passoires thermiques sont eclairantes pour ces politiques sectorielles. Les experiences etrangeres et les experimentations deja en place dans les territoires permettent au Haut Conseil pour le Climat de formuler de grands ensembles de recommandations afin de renforcer les politiques de renovation energetique francaise: - Massifier la renovation energetique par la mise en place de conditions financieres et reglementaires. Renforcer les politiques de renovation ciblant les coproprietes et les rendre obligatoires; - Mettre en oeuvre les obligations de renovation de la loi energie climat de maniere coherente avec la reduction des vulnerabilites, alors que 6,7 millions d'individus sont touches par la precarite energetique en 2017; - Integrer plus fortement l'usage de sources d'energie bas-carbone dans la strategie de renovation, et mieux integrer la renovation et l'offre de chaleur renouvelable dans les plans et politiques territoriaux; - Renover les batiments publics, par exemple en definissant des feuilles de route par branche de ce parc; - Suivre et evaluer les politiques de renovation energetique des batiments, et y adosser des conditionnalites de l'aide publique a des niveaux de performance exigeants. Ce rapport evoque egalement les enjeux d'adaptation au changement climatique lors de la renovation des batiments, en particulier le confort thermique en saison chaude, qui doivent etre identifies selon les regions et inclus dans les strategies de renovation. La massification des renovations permettra egalement de repondre aux enjeux actuels de reprise economique, d'emploi et de pouvoir d'achat a travers la reduction de la facture d'energie, comme le soulignait le Haut Conseil pour le Climat dans son rapport annuel 2020.
[en] This publication presents and comments various data and indicators related to or illustrating energy poverty in France in the first half of 2020. Different topics are addressed with, for each of them, a definition of the studied indicator, values and analysis of the indicator with, should the occasion occur, district maps, and additional information (source, scope, reading cautions). The addressed issues are indicators of quantification of energy poverty (assessment of the number of concerned households, household perception of energy issues), contextual indicators (energy prices, income poverty and poverty intensity, energy consumptions of the housing fleet, household energy expenses), indicators expressing the difficulty of households to pay their bills, indicators of follow-up of the various national financial arrangements