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[en] This dissertation seeks to explain the pattern of nuclear power development in the United States, treating the subject as a case study of how major infrastructural development choices are made in a modern capitalist economy. The main concept adduced in the thesis to organize nuclear history is that of an Official Technology (OT). The latter enjoys strong state support, the promoted image of the coming technology and capture of critical mass advantages. The dissertation analyzes the incentives key political-economic interests had for promoting nuclear power to OT status 1946-1974 and the mechanisms used by these groups to facilitate nuclear expansion. At OT differential, tallying the microeconomic impact of nuclear's capture of OT status is calculated. Included in the differential are the benefits of scale economies, learning curve cost reductions, federal subsidies and regulatory incentives, misleading information environments, and bureaucratic momentum. Nuclear's decline after 1974 is tied to the erosion of this differential by a political challenge to the technology's OT status
[en] This dissertation analysis the capture of Mexico's oil company, PEMEX, through a historical overview of the Mexican oil industry and through a reference model of PEMEX's behavior. From this analysis, the dissertation will claim the following: (1) Due to the collective-action strength acquired by the PEMEX union in its initial decade (1938-1947) the government found it is less costly to co-opt union leaders than to negotiate with a militant union. The costs of this arrangement have increased ever since. Chapters 2 through 4 contain discursive and historical arguments to sustain this claim. (2) When the government's co-optation model can account for overmanning (more generally, relative factor input distortions) but fails to explain promotion practices based on union militancy, or for the relative decline of tenured contracts (Chapters 5 and 6). Based on the historical understanding of operational features and the incompleteness of the co-option model, one can draw that PEMEX does not operate on the (minimum) cost function. Therefore, PEMEX's sources of inefficiency go beyond overmanning and subcontracting distortions (Chapter 7). This dissertation concludes that governmental operation of an extractive industry in the form of a monopoly does not efficiently transfer to taxpayers their ownership rights to subsoil rents
[en] Are national support schemes compatible with the EU's internal electricity market? What opportunities for cross-border cooperation currently exist, and how could the EU's legal framework be developed further? This study starts with an analysis of the reasons for and the status quo of cross-border cooperation in the promotion of renewable energies. When evaluating the compatibility of national support schemes with the free movement of goods under Art. 34 of the TFEU, it discusses the current problems of cross-border support schemes. On that basis, the author develops and analyses possible elements of increased cross-border promotion of renewable energies, in particular the principle of reciprocity and physical electricity imports. Subsequently, these elements are evaluated in terms of their compatibility with the free movement of goods and the legal competences of the EU to introduce a corresponding future legal framework.
[de]Sind nationale Foerdersysteme fuer erneuerbare Energien mit dem europaeischen Strombinnenmarkt vereinbar? Welche Moeglichkeiten der grenzueberschreitenden Kooperation gibt es aktuell und in welcher Form koennte der europaeische Rechtsrahmen weiterentwickelt werden? Das Werk untersucht zunaechst Gruende und Status quo eines grenzueberschreitenden Ansatzes der Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien. Im Rahmen der Bewertung der Vereinbarkeit nationaler Foerdersysteme mit der Warenverkehrsfreiheit nach Art. 34 AEUV werden aktuelle Probleme einer grenzueberschreitenden Oeffnung der Foerdersysteme herausgearbeitet. Darauf aufbauend entwickelt und untersucht die Autorin moegliche Elemente - insbesondere den Grundsatz der Reziprozitaet sowie den physischen Stromimport - einer zunehmenden grenzueberschreitenden Foerderung. Diese Elemente werden auf ihre Vereinbarkeit mit dem freien Warenverkehr untersucht und abschliessend kompetenzrechtlich in einen entsprechenden moeglichen kuenftigen EU-Rechtsrahmen eingeordnet.
[en] There are two structural tensions between liberalism and environmental quality. First, liberalism's emphasis on individual self-interest creates a problematic concept of communal good. Society, as manifest in liberal contract theory, exists not to find some higher good, but to protect individual rights. Individual and corporate property rights have consistently overshadowed community claims on resource management. Second, capitalism has been characterized by a constant drive for expansion in search of increased productivity and profit. The impact of that expansionary ethic has been overuse of limited resources and the poisoning of the physical environment. This study combines normative theory with case studies of the substantive policy areas of air, water, and waste. Environmental policy's analyzed with attention to the parameters of American political culture and the inherent limitations the language of liberalism places on policy choices. The literature on symbolic policy is then applied exploring the role of symbolic politics in easing the tension between liberalism and environmental quality. Ultimately, substantive policy areas are explored in a effort to explain the evolution of specific policies
[en] Inverse (or reverse) Stackelberg games have become the subject of recent game theory research, as a special type or as an extension of Stackelberg games. So far, only very little theory about inverse Stackelberg games is available and the available theory is still in its infancy. In this thesis we focus on theoretically solving such problems and we propose to treat several challenging problems in various fields inside this framework. In Stackelberg games a so-called leader determines actions for one or more so-called followers. The problem of finding an optimal strategy for the leader in these games is in general extremely hard to solve, and often even completely unsolvable. Starting from simple static problems and proceeding to more difficult dynamic ones, we show how to find the optimal strategy for the leader in a heuristic manner. In this thesis, the application of game theory is proposed in the following domains: The optimal toll design problem, the electricity markets liberalization problem, and the theory of incentives. The optimal toll design problem is a game of the Stackelberg type in which a road authority acts as the leader and drivers in the road network act as the followers. The road authority sets tolls on some of the links in the network in order to maximize its objective function, while the drivers make their travel decisions in order to minimize their perceived travel costs. If the toll that the road authority sets is traffic-flow invariant, the problem is the 'classical' Stackelberg game; if the toll is traffic-flow dependent, the problem is of the inverse Stackelberg type. We determine the optimal traffic-flow dependent toll for the road authority for both static and dynamic variants of the problem. If the solution concept for the drivers' behavior is the deterministic user equilibrium, the problem can be dealt with analytically. If the stochastic user equilibrium applies, numerical methods have to be applied to find a solution. As the problem is NP-hard, we use a neural-networks based solution approach to solve the problem. We compare outcomes of the games with traffic-flow invariant and traffic-flow dependent toll and conclude that the traffic-flow dependent toll can improve the system performance remarkably. Interesting phenomena in this problem and its properties are discussed, too. The electricity markets liberalization problem is defined in this thesis as a non-cooperative game among electricity producers in eight European countries, in which the electricity demand is exogenous. The producers choose among available means of electricity productions and quantities to produce in order to maximize their profit. Different game scenarios are considered: Perfect competition, a game with one leading producer per each country, and a game with two leading producers, playing Nash among themselves, for each country. The transmission of electricity between neighboring countries is allowed and emission constraints are considered. A numerical model, using real data, is developed in order to solve the problem. Our results suggest that liberalization of electricity markets leads to electricity price decrease. Finally, we deal with so-called principal-agent models from the theory of incentives as a specific group of inverse Stackelberg problems. Here the principal as a leader contracts an agent as a follower in order to produce certain goods. The agent can be of different efficiency, often unknown to the principal. The problem of finding the optimal strategy for the principal is dealt with. Interesting phenomena in this game are presented and an optimal strategy for the leader is derived.
[en] The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO2 abatement. A 'grandfather' permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO2 tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO2 taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO2 tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO2 market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs
[en] This PhD dissertation focuses on energy efficiency policies in housing. It aims at evaluating the effectiveness of public incentives designed to increase household's investment in energy efficiency of their dwelling. To reach this objective this research combines the two key dimensions of ex-post evaluation, i.e. summary and formative dimensions. The first one aims at knowing the effectiveness of public policies whereas the other one targets to understand what the public policies' consequences are and to identify ways for improvement. To reach this purpose, the research follows four steps. Firstly, it requires a detailed analysis to understand the origins of the energy efficiency gap. This gap can be explained by markets failures, consequences of bounded rationality and coordination problem between stakeholders, especially in multi-family dwellings. Secondly, the argument progresses by drawing a parallel between results from normative analysis and from observations of actual level of investments in thermal retrofit actions. It aims at identifying investment households' criteria and then at understanding how barriers to energy efficiency raise. Thirdly, thanks to the inventory of these various energy efficiency barriers it becomes possible to examine if the incentives currently implemented in France can remove them all. It appears that the national policy does not significantly reduce the energy efficiency gap. On the one hand, some barriers remain because no tool has been proposed to overcome them. On the other hand, some barriers are only partially eliminated because the practical use of tools differs from their theoretical design. Finally, using the analysis of retrofitting programs implemented on the Grenoble area this research assesses the effectiveness of additional incentives. The objective is to know to what extent these 'reinforced' policies remove barriers still existing after national tools implementation. From these four successive analyses - causes, appearance of the energy efficiency gap, national tools, programs implemented at the local level - we conclude to a necessary strengthening of non-financial measures which support agents to initiate an investment dynamic and in the meanwhile to an increase of the reliability of economic tools, such as taxes or subventions. (author)
[fr]Cette these a pour objectif d'evaluer l'efficacite des dispositifs publics qui visent a inciter les agents a renover leur logement afin d'en reduire la consommation energetique. Il s'agit de combiner les deux dimensions cles de l'evaluation ex-post de l'intervention: la dimension recapitulative qui revient a determiner l'efficacite des mesures mises en oeuvre et la dimension formative qui vise a comprendre les resultats obtenus et a identifier les voies d'amelioration. Cela necessite dans un premier temps de realiser une analyse detaillee des facteurs qui sont a l'origine du faible niveau d'investissements, qualifie de deficit d'efficacite energetique ('energy efficiency gap'). Ce deficit est du a la presence de defaillances de marches, aux consequences de la rationalite limitee des menages, ainsi qu'aux difficultes de coordination entre agents en particulier dans le cadre de la copropriete. Dans un deuxieme temps il convient d'analyser le deficit d'efficacite energetique en comparant les prescriptions qui peuvent etre issues des calculs utilises en economie publique concernant les investissements a realiser, avec les donnees issues des etudes de terrain sur les investissements effectifs. Cette analyse permet de bien identifier les criteres de decisions des menages et ainsi de comprendre comment les barrieres a l'efficacite energetique se manifestent. L'identification des differentes barrieres permet alors, dans un troisieme temps, de voir si les dispositifs d'incitations aujourd'hui en application en France permettent de lever tous les obstacles aux investissements d'amelioration energetique. Il apparait que la multitude de dispositifs mis en oeuvre ne peut suffire a reduire fortement le deficit d'efficacite energetique. D'une part, certaines barrieres ne sont pas levees car aucun outil approprie n'existe. D'autre part, certains facteurs de blocages ne sont que partiellement traites car l'utilisation pratique des outils different de leur conception theorique. Finalement, l'analyse des programmes de rehabilitation thermique des logements qui ont ete engages sur le territoire grenoblois permet de determiner l'efficacite des dispositifs additionnels c'est a dire d'evaluer dans quelle mesure ces interventions 'renforcees' permettent de lever les barrieres qui n'ont pu l'etre avec les dispositifs nationaux. La mise en perspective de ces quatre analyses successives - des causes du deficit; de sa manifestation; des instruments nationaux; des programmes mis en oeuvre a l'echelle locale - aboutit a la conclusion d'un necessaire renforcement des mesures non financieres pour l'accompagnement des agents afin d'amorcer la dynamique d'investissement et ainsi creer les conditions de l'efficacite des instruments economiques plus generaux. (auteur)
[en] The thesis discusses the theoretical economics and social factors for development of new energy technologies and has chapter on: New energy technologies in an economical and political change, technology development from innovation economy to economical sociology, opinion formation in the energy sector, establishing energy economical discussion, economy as pidgin, financial factors, forming social education and market power versus language strife
[en] Renewable energy sources (RES), such as biomass, can be used to address two important issues in Europe: climate change and energy security. If biomass is produced sustainably and used efficiently, bioenergy contributes very little to CO2 emissions. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a scientific basis describing how bioenergy can play a fundamental role in the transition to more sustainable energy systems. For this purpose, an assessment of the potential biomass supply was made. This assessment shows that the long-term biomass supply could amount to up to 16 EJ/y in the EU27, i.e. 21% of the current primary energy supply, taking environmental and land-use restrictions into account. The greater part of this potential biomass supply consists of perennial energy crops. Thus, if biomass is to play a major role in the future energy supply, large-scale perennial energy crop production is required. The analysis of the economics of growing willow, a perennial energy crop, indicates that it can be equally viable for the farmer as that of cereal crops if subsidies and the cost of risk are excluded. In a strategy to reduce the cost of risk, a central issue is to create opportunities for a long-term demand for bioenergy. In Sweden and Finland, two of the leading bioenergy-using countries in Europe, energy and CO2 taxes have been the key instruments in increasing the use of bioenergy. Creating opportunities for bioenergy in general will not immediately or necessarily stimulate perennial crop production since production costs are at the high end of the biomass cost range. In a strategy to stimulate perennial crop production, large coal-fired power and combined heat and power (CHP) plants can play an important role. Co-firing of biofuels in these plants is a low-risk bioenergy strategy for energy companies. The continuous and, compared to other continents in the world, more intense promotion of bioenergy in Europe is likely to increase biofuel imports unless the EU chooses to expand the use of trade barriers and tariffs. When Swedish energy policy in the early 1990s made biofuels the most competitive fuel in the production of district heat, this stimulated biofuel import flows, neither foreseen nor intended by Swedish policy makers. These unintentional effects of policy can, however, be positive when viewed in a wider context as they lead to the development of biomass production and logistics in countries where current demand for bioenergy is low
[en] Preventing dangerous global climate change requires timely deployment of nascent energy technologies with zero or low Co2 emissions. Managing the shift to a common sustainable technology path calls for insight about the influence of global technological change on the national energy system. Moreover, national policies are required to promote the shift to the new technology path. This calls for methods to analyse the national energy system within a global perspective. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate interplay between technology diffusion, niche markets and technology learning from the perspective of a small open economy like Norway. More specifically, develop methods to include the influence of technology learning manifested in experience and learning curves into national energy-economy-environment models. Moreover, apply the methods to investigate the potential influence and sensitivity to technology learning in a small open economy. In this thesis three such methods have been developed, applied and its importance assessed using Norway as an example. In this work three models have been linked. They are the global Energy Technology Perspectives model operated by the International Energy Agency, the Norwegian Markal model at the Institute for Energy Technology and the macro economic model MSG6 at Statistics Norway. Method one and two has been developed to manage the interplay between the models. In a local perspective technology learning in the global market is perceived as spillover. Based upon a review of the characteristics of technological change and learning curves and its application to energy system modelling some criteria important for the parameterization and modelling of spillover in a small open economy are suggested. The first method incorporates spillover into the national Markal model. The second method establishes a soft-link between the national models. The soft-link served two purposes; to provide input on demand for energy services to the Markal model and to carry forward the influence of spillover into the MSG6 macro economic model. With the soft-link it is possible to investigate feedback on demand for energy service from the non-energy sectors of the economy at a sector level. Finally, a method to evaluate technology specific national policies to the realization of a global scenario is suggested.The assessment shows that the national technology composition and Co2 emissions exhibit sensitivity to spillover and thus the global scenario. Moreover, spillover may generate substantial benefit for a small open economy like Norway. Without the spillover from international deployment a domestic technology relies only on endogenous national learning. However, with high but realistic learning rates offshore floating wind power may become cost-efficient even if initially deployed only in Norwegian niche markets. The influence of spillover on the non-energy sectors, though modest, is most pronounced on the industrial chemicals production. Implementing a technology specific policy, e.g., a feed-in tariff in response to an Eu directive in addition to spillover and the general Co2 incentive, increases early deployment. The elucidation of the application of spillover on the national energy system analysis in a globalized energy technology market and the combination of spillover and a national soft-linked hybrid model, exchanging information at a sector level, and adds new elements to national policy analysis. Moreover, the exertion to coordinate national efforts with a portfolio of globally desirable low-carbon technologies provides a new indicator for the national contribution to a shift in the global technology path.(au)