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[en] Businesses are an important part of the problem in promoting good nutrition outcomes but because they are so enmeshed in the food system they must form a big part of the solution to improved nutrition. They must be engaged to do so, with carrots and sticks. This talk outlines this argument and describes some of the incentives that are available to governments who have a duty to be proactive in helping businesses do more good things and fewer bad things. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Environmental collaboration is championed as the solution to water problems. • We conducted an international systematic literature review of empirical studies. • 22 broad themes were found to influence the success and failure of effective collaboration. • Importance, agreement, and compatibility of the themes vary greatly. • More research is needed on how to prioritise different themes and the politics at play. - Abstract: Bold and inventive solutions are urgently needed to safeguard the future use of water. In response, collaborative-innovation is increasingly championed. If stakeholders including water utilities, supply-chain companies, research institutions and local communities work together, share their experiences and pool ideas, meaningful change could happen, it’s argued. But effective collaboration is far from easy. For every incentive that drives collaboration forward, another barrier blocks its path. Whilst the literature offers many possible factors that influence the success (or failure) of collaborative-innovations, it remains unclear which factors are most important, where the highest agreement and disagreement exists, and if accommodating one factor creates problems for another. This is important because its not always practical, nor necessary, to apply everything from the academic literature. In this paper, we report findings from an international systematic literature review that brings together a range of studies that cross the water collaboration and water innovation divide. We identify 22 broad themes that are spread (unevenly) across the entire collaborative-innovation process; highlight how the level of attention given to each theme varies greatly; and where disagreement exists. Our research provides practical insights on how to create more effective collaborative-innovations in water and where future research should be directed.
[en] It is estimated that the cumulative financial impact of reactor scrams on U.S. nuclear plants approaches one-half billion dollars per year. At the current scram rate in the U.S., the incremental affect on power generation costs is estimated to be almost 1 Mill/KWhr. These figures involve calculations which were reinforced by input from a simple questionnaire used to gather information about the financial impacts of reactor scrams. The financial impact of reactor scrams is expanding into new areas and involves both obvious and hidden elements. Some are felt immediately while others may not be felt for 20 years or more. In addition to the visible financial impacts, the organizational disruption resulting from a reactor scram is widespread
[en] Clean energy technologies that cost more than fossil fuel technologies require support through research and development (R&D). Learning-by-doing relates historical cost decreases to accumulation of experience. A learning investment is the amount of subsidy that is required to reach cost parity between a new technology and a conventional technology. We use learning investments to compare the relative impacts of two stylized types of R&D. We define curve-following R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing knowledge that would have otherwise been gained through learning-by-doing. We define curve-shifting R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing innovations that would not have occurred through learning-by-doing. We show that if an equal investment in curve-following or curve-shifting R&D would produce the same reduction in cost, the curve-shifting R&D would be more effective at reducing the learning investment needed to make the technology competitive. The relative benefit of curve-shifting over curve-following R&D is greater with a high starting cost and low learning rate. Our analysis suggests that, other things equal, investments in curve-shifting R&D have large benefits relative to curve-following R&D. In setting research policy, governments should consider the greater benefits of cost reductions brought about by transformational rather than incremental change. - Highlights: • A stylized analysis of two types of R&D investment provided. • Other things equal, curve-shifting R&D is more effective than curve-following R&D. • Governments should consider the benefits of transformational change in setting research priorities.
[en] Environmental quotas tend to compound the welfare cost of pre-existing tax distortions in the labor market. Under plausible parameters, this source of welfare loss can easily be large enough to outweigh the entire partial equilibrium welfare gain from the quota. Environmental taxes induce the same interaction effect, however they also raise government revenues. If the revenues are used to reduce distortionary taxes, then most of this interaction effect can be offset. Therefore, revenue-raising can be a necessary condition for environmental policies to increase welfare
[en] This memo aims to provide an overview of environmentally harmful subsidies in the Netherlands. Eliminating environmentally harmful subsidies is an important first step toward including the environmental effects in prices and weigh the use of natural resources explicitly in decisions made by citizens, businesses and governments. Particularly in the sectors energy, transport and agriculture significant amounts of environmentally harmful subsidies are available. For the Netherlands this amounts to 5-10 billion euros in 2010. The exact amount is difficult to estimate depends strongly on the definition and the method of calculation. This also goes for determining the hazardous effects on the environment.
[nl]Deze notitie beoogt een globaal overzicht te geven van milieuschadelijke subsidies in Nederland. Afschaffen van milieuschadelijke subsidies is een belangrijke eerste stap om milieu beter in de prijzen te krijgen en het beslag op natuurlijke hulpbronnen explicieter mee te wegen in beslissingen van burgers, bedrijven en overheden. Met name in de sectoren energie, verkeer en landbouw zijn nog substantiele bedragen aan milieuschadelijke subsidies te vinden. Voor geheel Nederland gaat het in 2010 om een bedrag tussen 5 en 10 miljard euro. De exacte omvang hiervan blijkt lastig te bepalen en is sterk afhankelijk van de afbakening en de wijze van berekening. Dit geldt ook voor de bepaling van de schadelijke effecten voor het milieu.
[en] By way of papers given by IGBE chairman Heinz-Werner Meyer and, later, by a publication in the 'Einheit' magazine, IGBE claimed that more promotional funds had been spent on nuclear energy than on coal for power generation. Prof. Joachim Grawe, VDEW head excutive, contradicted to this in an open letter dated 14th March 1989. H.-W. Meyer's response to this letter (23rd March 1989) is commented on by VDEW in this article. (orig.)
[de]Bei Vortraegen ihres Vorsitzenden Heinz-Werner Meyer und spaeter durch eine Veroeffentlichung in der Zeitschrift Einheit hat die IGBE behauptet, die Kernenergie sei mit hoeheren Summen gefoerdert worden als die Verstromung der deutschen Steinkohle. Dem hat Prof. Joachim Grawe, der Hauptgeschaeftsfuehrer der VDEW, in einem offenen Brief vom Maerz 1989 widersprochen. Zur Gegenaeusserung von H.-W. Meyer (23. Maerz 1989) macht die VDEW die folgenden Anmerkungen. (orig.)
[en] While the potential adverse effects of fossil fuel subsidy reform are well documented for households, the literature has largely ignored the effect of subsidy reform on firms’ competitiveness. This paper discusses how firms are affected by, and respond to, energy price increases caused by subsidy reforms. It highlights that cost increases (both direct and indirect) do not necessarily reflect competitiveness losses, since firms have various ways to mitigate and pass on price shocks. This paper presents and discusses direct and indirect transmission channels for price shocks, and firms’ response measures: absorbing cost shocks into profits, inter-fuel substitution, increasing energy and material efficiency, and passing on price increases. It argues that further micro-econometric studies using enterprise surveys are essential for quantifying the role of these mechanisms, and for designing policy measures that ensure that competitiveness losses due to subsidy reforms are minimised. - Highlights: • Concerns about competitiveness can be a key political obstacle to subsidy reform. • Net impacts are determined by (in-)direct price shocks, and four response measures. • Policy makers need to understand impacts on firms to design effective reforms. • Enterprise surveys are key for understanding and quantifying impacts on firms.