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[en] Current Medicare MIP measures encourage radiologists not to recommend follow-up for ≤ 1 cm adrenal nodules. However, a radiologist may be the first to discover a small, subclinical pheochromocytoma. As such, recognition of the enhancement pattern of pheochromocytoma is important to ensure detection and properly guide management, which begins with clinical and laboratory assessment for elevated catecholamines.
[en] The promotion of renewable energy cannot be separated from the support provided by government subsidies. However, the effect of government subsidies is controversial. Taking China’s listed renewable energy companies as examples, this paper analyzes the impact of government subsidies on the financial performance of these companies. The results show that government subsidies do not promote improvements in corporate financial performance, and renewable energy companies are less profitable than other companies. The negative effect of government subsidies on corporate financial performance can be explained mostly by the rent-seeking behavior of firms. The occurrence of subsidy-induced overcapacity and adverse selection and moral hazard created by asymmetric information also weaken the incentive effect of government subsidies to some extent.
[en] The implementation of the extended producer responsibility (EPR) for e-waste is an important measure to develop an ecological civilization. In order to advance manufacturing enterprises to effectively implement resource and environmental responsibility, this study investigates the main causes of environmental regulation failure from the perspective of government and enterprises. The game theory was used to establish an evolutionary game model between government regulatory departments and electronic and electrical products’ manufacturing enterprises. A system dynamic model was utilized to construct the stock-flow graph of the game between government and enterprises, and to carry out simulation analysis under different strategies. The results found that the probability of an enterprise undertaking extended responsibility gradually increased and stabilized with the increase of government supervision and punishment intensity; the government’s regulatory probability and punishment are important factors affecting the enterprises’ compliance with regulations and responsibilities. The study suggests that government should focus on strengthening environmental regulations from the aspects of improving laws and regulations, establishing a regular monitoring system and innovating incentive and constraint mechanism.
[en] Whereas legal locks have been broken in 2014 with the abolishment of the bank monopoly, crowd-funding has been developed in France. A dozen of platforms allow new actors such as citizen and communities to finance projects, notably in the field of renewable energies. This set of articles proposes an assessment of the present situation in this respect. The crowd-funding development in this sector is also favoured by the introduction of bonus for tenders. Previous administrative obstacles are discussed, and the quick evolution is commented. The difference between citizen-based project and participative project is highlighted, and some questions related to the emergence of a possible 'social washing' are evoked. A list of crowd-funding platforms for the financing of renewable energy projects is provided, and the characteristics of crowd-funding financing are compared with those of other financing approaches
[en] 5 key trends in 2019: 1 - As of May 1, 2019, 25 carbon taxes and 26 Emissions Trading Schemes (ETS) were operating worldwide. The jurisdictions covered by one or more explicit carbon price account for around 60% of global GDP. 2 - Carbon prices are making headway globally despite local setbacks. In Canada, provincial elections in Ontario and Alberta led to rolling back provincial pricing schemes; at the same time, the pan-Canadian backstop is being implemented countrywide on all provinces that do not have their own pricing scheme. In France, the yellow vest protests prompted the government to freeze the carbon tax at its current rate of USD 51, yet the tax was not rolled back. The year 2020 shall see Mexico and China ETSs start operations with actual positive prices. 3 - Carbon pricing mechanisms generated USD 45 billion (EUR 40 billion) in revenues in 2018, up from USD 32 billion in 2017 and USD 22 billion in 2016. This increase is mostly due to a rise in EU ETS prices, from below USD 10 until 2018 to above USD 25 lately. 4 - In 2018, 52% of carbon pricing revenues came from carbon taxes. Carbon revenues are mostly channeled to the general budget, or earmarked for environmental purposes. 5 - More than 75% of emissions regulated by carbon pricing are still covered by a price below USD 10 (EUR 8). To stay on the 2 deg. C trajectory while sustaining economic growth, the High-Level Commission on carbon prices led by economists Stern and Stiglitz recommends carbon prices between USD 40 and USD 80 per ton of CO2 by 2020, and between USD 50 and USD 100 per ton of CO2 by 2030. Two instruments put a price explicitly on GHG emissions: carbon taxes set a fixed price per ton of CO2, while CO2 Emissions Trading Schemes (ETS) impose ceilings on a jurisdiction's yearly emissions. This Global Carbon Account focuses on explicit carbon prices, yet implicit carbon prices such as fuel excise taxes (price per liter) or taxes on electricity production (price per kWh) are also to be taken into account when calculating the full impact of pollution-related prices on economic actors' choices. Similarly, subsidies and support measures to the production and/or consumption of fossil fuels are sometimes referred to as 'negative implicit carbon prices'. The International Energy Agency estimates that the total amount of consumption fossil-fuel subsidies was around USD 260 billion in 2016
[en] The radical change in recent global climate governance calls for China and Europe to ramp up their efforts in leading the world to reach the long-term climate goals. By analyzing the results from the state-of-the-art global integrated assessment model, MESSAGEix-GLOBIOM, this paper aims to understand the future levels of financial investment needed for building and maintaining energy-related infrastructure in the two regions for fulfilling stringent targets consistent with ‘well below 2 °C’. The results indicate that a rapid upscaling and structural change of these investments towards decarbonization are necessitated by the climate stringent scenarios. China and Europe need to increase their low carbon investments by 65% and 38% in a scenario reaching the 2° target relative to their respective reference scenarios which assume no such target from 2016–2050. In a more stringent climate policy scenario of the 1.5° target, these investment needs will increase by 149% and 79% for China and Europe respectively. Among all the energy sectors, energy efficiency, renewable electricity generation and electricity transmission and distribution are the three largest investing targets for the two regions. However, those investments will not likely be realized without strong policy incentives. Implications for green finance and multilateral cooperation initiatives are discussed in the context of the scenario results. (letter)
[en] For the construction of Hinkley Point C and D, EdF demanded state subsidies from the British government in 2013 because otherwise it would not be economically viable. The EU approved certain measures as aid to promote the project. The Republic of Austria appealed against this decision, which was, however, rejected by the European Court (EC). Austria has appealed against this decision to the European Court of Justice (ECJ).
[de]Fuer den Bau von Hinkley Point C und D forderte EdF 2013 von der britischen Regierung staatliche Subventionen, weil es sonst wirtschaftlich nicht rentabel sei. Zur staatlichen Foerderung des Projekts wurden von der EU bestimmte Massnahmen als Beihilfe genehmigt. Die Republik Oesterreich klagten gegen diesen Bescheid, die jedoch vom Europaeischen Gericht (EuG) abgewiesen wurden. Oesterreich hat gegen dieses Urteil Rechtsmittel zum EuGH eingelegt.
[en] China increasingly relies on agricultural imports, driven by its rising population and income, as well as dietary shifts. International trade offers an opportunity to relieve pressures on resource depletion and pollution, such as nitrogen (N) pollution, while it poses multiple socioeconomic challenges, such as food availability. To quantify such trade-offs considering the roles of different crop types, we developed a unique crop-specific N budget database and assessed the impacts of the crop trade on multiple sustainability concerns including N pollution caused by crop production, crop land area, independence of food supply, and trade expenditures. We quantified the ‘virtual’ N inputs and harvested areas, which are the amount of N inputs and land resources used in exporting countries for China’s crop import. In addition, we proposed the concepts of ‘alternative’ N inputs and harvested area to quantify the resources needed if imported crops were produced in China. By comparing results from ‘alternative’ and ‘virtual’ concepts, we assessed the role of trade in Chinese crops over the past 30 years (i.e. 1986–2015) in alleviating N pollution and saving cropland in China and the world. Crop imports accounted for 31% of Chinese crop N consumption in 2015, and these crop imports eased the need for an additional cropland area of 62 million ha. It also avoided an N surplus by 56 and 36 Tg (Tg = 109 kg) for China and the world respectively but led to $621 billion crop trade expenditures over the 30 year period. The N pollution damage avoided by crop imports in economic terms was priced at $22 ± 16 billion in 2015, which is lower than the crop trade expenditures but may be surpassed in the future with the development of the Chinese economy. Optimizing a crop trade portfolio can shift domestic production from N-intensive crop production (e.g. maize, fruits, and vegetables) to N-efficient crop production (e.g. soybeans), and consequently mitigate an N surplus by up to 12%. Improving N use efficiency for individual crops can further increase the mitigation potential of N surplus to 30%–50%, but requires technology advancement and policy incentives. (letter)
[en] Partnerships, between multiple sides that share goals and strive for mutual benefit, are ubiquitous both between and within the enterprises, and competition and cooperation are the fundamental characteristics in partnership systems. As the inherent effect of capital-product switching applied together with stochastic fluctuations of internal and external environments, the effects compete and cooperate to make the system achieve global optimum in the statistical sense. Thus motivated, we establish an over-damped nonlinear Langevin equation to describe the dynamical behaviors subject to the bias mono-stable Cobb–Douglas utility under the wealth-constraint condition. Based on linear response theory, we derive the performance indexes, including output signal-to-noise ratio, stationary unit risk return, systematic risk and bilateral risk, and stochastic resonance (SR) and reverse SR phenomena are observed by the simulations. Finally, we introduce one true example to explain the actual phenomenon observed from the practice. The purpose in this paper is to develop a quantitative method and associated prototype system beg the questions of how the external venture capital incents the partners especially associated with partnership success and what roles the internal and external risks play, respectively.
[en] The signing of the Paris climate agreement and sustainable development goals demonstrated an international commitment to halting climate change, increasing energy access, and maintaining biodiversity. Successful implementation requires rapidly expanding renewable energy development, which has a large land footprint and can conflict with maintaining natural lands. To quantify the potential to mediate this land conflict, we converted emission reduction commitments submitted as part of the Paris agreement into actionable energy targets, and assessed whether they can be met by developing renewables on converted lands and waters of lower biodiversity and carbon value. The world has 19 times the required energy targets on converted lands, and most countries, including the top ten emitters, can meet the Paris agreement goals. Furthermore, regions (e.g. Africa) that will experience substantial population growth and that currently have limited energy infrastructure can meet their Paris agreement and future energy targets by developing renewable energy on already converted lands. Guiding renewable energy development to converted lands presents opportunities for sustainable development, but also requires incentives and proactive planning to ensure expansion does not exacerbate other environmental challenges. (letter)