Results 1 - 10 of 1980
Results 1 - 10 of 1980. Search took: 0.031 seconds
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[en] The ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency) keeps on backing the development of renewable heat and particularly wood fuels through the selection of BCIAT projects. The projects are selected on the ratio between public financing and the amount of fossil energy spared. Since 2007 the program of BCIAT projects has allowed wood fuels to represent up to between 10 and 15% of the energy consumed in the industrial sector. A map shows that the 2012-selected BCIAT projects are quite fairly spread over all the territory. (A.C.)
[en] Current Medicare MIP measures encourage radiologists not to recommend follow-up for ≤ 1 cm adrenal nodules. However, a radiologist may be the first to discover a small, subclinical pheochromocytoma. As such, recognition of the enhancement pattern of pheochromocytoma is important to ensure detection and properly guide management, which begins with clinical and laboratory assessment for elevated catecholamines.
[en] Highlights: • Environmental collaboration is championed as the solution to water problems. • We conducted an international systematic literature review of empirical studies. • 22 broad themes were found to influence the success and failure of effective collaboration. • Importance, agreement, and compatibility of the themes vary greatly. • More research is needed on how to prioritise different themes and the politics at play. - Abstract: Bold and inventive solutions are urgently needed to safeguard the future use of water. In response, collaborative-innovation is increasingly championed. If stakeholders including water utilities, supply-chain companies, research institutions and local communities work together, share their experiences and pool ideas, meaningful change could happen, it’s argued. But effective collaboration is far from easy. For every incentive that drives collaboration forward, another barrier blocks its path. Whilst the literature offers many possible factors that influence the success (or failure) of collaborative-innovations, it remains unclear which factors are most important, where the highest agreement and disagreement exists, and if accommodating one factor creates problems for another. This is important because its not always practical, nor necessary, to apply everything from the academic literature. In this paper, we report findings from an international systematic literature review that brings together a range of studies that cross the water collaboration and water innovation divide. We identify 22 broad themes that are spread (unevenly) across the entire collaborative-innovation process; highlight how the level of attention given to each theme varies greatly; and where disagreement exists. Our research provides practical insights on how to create more effective collaborative-innovations in water and where future research should be directed.
[en] Clean energy technologies that cost more than fossil fuel technologies require support through research and development (R&D). Learning-by-doing relates historical cost decreases to accumulation of experience. A learning investment is the amount of subsidy that is required to reach cost parity between a new technology and a conventional technology. We use learning investments to compare the relative impacts of two stylized types of R&D. We define curve-following R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing knowledge that would have otherwise been gained through learning-by-doing. We define curve-shifting R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing innovations that would not have occurred through learning-by-doing. We show that if an equal investment in curve-following or curve-shifting R&D would produce the same reduction in cost, the curve-shifting R&D would be more effective at reducing the learning investment needed to make the technology competitive. The relative benefit of curve-shifting over curve-following R&D is greater with a high starting cost and low learning rate. Our analysis suggests that, other things equal, investments in curve-shifting R&D have large benefits relative to curve-following R&D. In setting research policy, governments should consider the greater benefits of cost reductions brought about by transformational rather than incremental change. - Highlights: • A stylized analysis of two types of R&D investment provided. • Other things equal, curve-shifting R&D is more effective than curve-following R&D. • Governments should consider the benefits of transformational change in setting research priorities.
[en] Environmental quotas tend to compound the welfare cost of pre-existing tax distortions in the labor market. Under plausible parameters, this source of welfare loss can easily be large enough to outweigh the entire partial equilibrium welfare gain from the quota. Environmental taxes induce the same interaction effect, however they also raise government revenues. If the revenues are used to reduce distortionary taxes, then most of this interaction effect can be offset. Therefore, revenue-raising can be a necessary condition for environmental policies to increase welfare
[en] The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)
[en] By way of papers given by IGBE chairman Heinz-Werner Meyer and, later, by a publication in the 'Einheit' magazine, IGBE claimed that more promotional funds had been spent on nuclear energy than on coal for power generation. Prof. Joachim Grawe, VDEW head excutive, contradicted to this in an open letter dated 14th March 1989. H.-W. Meyer's response to this letter (23rd March 1989) is commented on by VDEW in this article. (orig.)
[de]Bei Vortraegen ihres Vorsitzenden Heinz-Werner Meyer und spaeter durch eine Veroeffentlichung in der Zeitschrift Einheit hat die IGBE behauptet, die Kernenergie sei mit hoeheren Summen gefoerdert worden als die Verstromung der deutschen Steinkohle. Dem hat Prof. Joachim Grawe, der Hauptgeschaeftsfuehrer der VDEW, in einem offenen Brief vom Maerz 1989 widersprochen. Zur Gegenaeusserung von H.-W. Meyer (23. Maerz 1989) macht die VDEW die folgenden Anmerkungen. (orig.)
[en] The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)