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[en] Businesses are an important part of the problem in promoting good nutrition outcomes but because they are so enmeshed in the food system they must form a big part of the solution to improved nutrition. They must be engaged to do so, with carrots and sticks. This talk outlines this argument and describes some of the incentives that are available to governments who have a duty to be proactive in helping businesses do more good things and fewer bad things. (author)
[en] Current Medicare MIP measures encourage radiologists not to recommend follow-up for ≤ 1 cm adrenal nodules. However, a radiologist may be the first to discover a small, subclinical pheochromocytoma. As such, recognition of the enhancement pattern of pheochromocytoma is important to ensure detection and properly guide management, which begins with clinical and laboratory assessment for elevated catecholamines.
[en] The promotion of renewable energy cannot be separated from the support provided by government subsidies. However, the effect of government subsidies is controversial. Taking China’s listed renewable energy companies as examples, this paper analyzes the impact of government subsidies on the financial performance of these companies. The results show that government subsidies do not promote improvements in corporate financial performance, and renewable energy companies are less profitable than other companies. The negative effect of government subsidies on corporate financial performance can be explained mostly by the rent-seeking behavior of firms. The occurrence of subsidy-induced overcapacity and adverse selection and moral hazard created by asymmetric information also weaken the incentive effect of government subsidies to some extent.
[en] Highlights: • Four government subsidy strategies are proposed. • Different scenarios of low-carbon diffusion are discussed. • The effective diffusion scenarios are analyzed in two situations. • Different scenarios are simulated through a case of new energy vehicles. • The corresponding policy recommendations are highlighted. - Abstract: How to select subsidy strategy for government in low-carbon diffusion is discussed in this paper, considering heterogeneous agents’ behavior. Firstly, four government subsidy strategies are given, and the evolutionary game models are constructed including enterprises and consumers. Then seven diffusion scenarios are analyzed according to different initial states, and discussed in two situations, that is, when there is no fluctuation and when there is fluctuation. And then the related simulation analysis is carried out through a case of new energy vehicles diffusion, and the result shows: (1) when the percents of enterprises and consumers with low-carbon strategy and low-carbon consumption are small, the measure only using government subsidy cannot lead to the success of low-carbon diffusion, only if combined with other measures. (2) when the percents of enterprises and consumers with low-carbon strategy and low-carbon consumption both increase to a certain degree, low-carbon diffusion can be realized successfully even without government subsidy, which is true even when there is periodic fluctuation. (3) as for low-carbon diffusion, it may be better to pull the low-carbon market through the demand side than to push the low-carbon market through the supplier side. Finally, the related policy recommendations are given.
[en] Highlights: • A trans-log cost function model is built. • Relationship between technical progress and energy rebound effect is analyzed. • Price elasticities of energy input in China's iron & steel industry are evaluated. • Rebound effect in this industry is approximately 73.88%. - Abstract: As a pillar industry in China, the iron & steel sector have under through rapid growth and technical progress for decades. However, energy polices aiming at energy savings may not be as good as expected due to the existence of rebound effects. The motivation of the paper is to analysis the nexus between technical progress and energy rebound effects. Based on a three-input trans-log cost function model, we first estimate the share equation and the corresponding price elasticity for each input factor. Then, the rebound effect in China's iron & steel industry over 1985–2015 is evaluated through decomposing the energy prices. Empirical results show that: (1) The price elasticities of input factors are negative; (2) Energy/capital and energy/labor show substitute relationships; (3) The average energy rebound effect in the ISI is as high as 73.88%; (4) The energy rebound effect shows a downward trend before the 11th Five-year period and then an upward trend after that. Therefore, policies proposals of lowering the rebound effect should be placed not only on technical progress, but also on energy price reform by reducing energy subsidies and thus accelerating energy price marketization, so as to promote energy substitution, reduce energy rebound effect and produce further economic and environmental benefits.
[en] Highlights: • We shed a light on how local conditions affect renewable energy innovation. • We reflect on energy policy accommodating area-based energy practices. • We study the PCR, an energy transition policy intended for community initiatives. • The policy modestly facilitates the accommodation of renewable energy projects. • Emerging area-based energy practices urge for adaptation of Dutch energy policies. - Abstract: This paper sheds a light on how local conditions affect renewable energy innovation. As empirical case, we study an energy transition policy regulation in the Netherlands: the zip code-rose regulation (PCR) intended for community energy initiatives. Firstly, we analyse the capacity of the PCR to facilitate the accommodation of renewable energy projects by community energy initiatives. Secondly, we analyse how emerging area-based energy practices are feeding back into the energy policy system. Based on empirical evidence from a desk study and interviews with community energy initiatives and key governance actors we find that the policy does provide a modest incentive for initiatives to develop renewable energy projects under local conditions. Nevertheless, the policy falls short of allowing initiatives to openly seek for locally desired solutions and hence, to increase opportunities at a local level to develop projects based on local conditions. However, current difficulties with the policy are being considered at a national level urging for adaptation of Dutch energy policies.
[en] Climate change brings uncertain risks of climate-related natural hazards. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA in Climate change: long-term trends and their implications for emergency management, 2011. https://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/programs/oppa/climate_change_paper.pdf ) has issued a policy directive to integrate climate change adaptation actions into hazard mitigation programs, policies, and plans. However, to date there has been no comprehensive empirical study to examine the extent to which climate change issues are integrated into state hazard mitigation plans (SHMPs). This study develops 18 indicators to examine the extent of climate change considerations in the 50 SHMPs. The results demonstrate that these SHMPs treat climate change issues in an uneven fashion, with large variations present among the 50 states. The overall plan quality for climate change considerations was sustained at an intermediate level with regard to climate change-related awareness, analysis, and actions. The findings confirm that climate change concepts and historic extreme events have been well recognized by the majority of SHMPs. Even though they are not specific to climate change, mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help reduce climate change risks have been adopted in these plans. However, the plans still lack a detailed assessment of climate change and more incentives for collaboration strategies beyond working with emergency management agencies.
[en] Highlights: • Recent reforms in India have virtually eliminated petroleum subsidies. • Calibrated use of three policy levers – petroleum taxation, retail prices and subsidy. • Balance achieved between fiscal, commercial and consumer interests. • Case-study for developing countries desirous to migrate to market pricing in phases. • Reforms still work-in-progress as full pricing freedom not yet granted. - Abstract: India's energy sector is passing through a significant transformation, triggered by recent international developments in global oil prices. Historically, diesel, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) have been subsidised leaving a small net balance from petroleum taxes for the government, and poor financials for the oil companies. However, all this changed when crude prices declined from over $100/barrel in June 2014 to $50/barrel in June 2017. Concurrent reforms undertaken by the government have radically reduced subsidies from $24.6 billion in 2013 to just $1.16 billion in 2017. This paper shows how reforms involved the strategic application of three different policy 'levers' – retail prices, tax rates and subsidies – with beneficial outcomes for the three main stakeholders – oil companies, the government, and the poorest consumers – the latter through keeping subsidies intact for LPG and kerosene which are used by the poor. It examines policy interventions by the Indian government across these different levers at different points of time. The analysis reveals that petroleum subsidy reform involves much more than simply raising retail prices. The paper brings out policy recommendations from the Indian experience for countries that wish to implement structural reforms in pricing, taxation and subsidies.
[en] Highlights: • Current market rules stop distributed generation (DG) from serving optimal local load. • Cost-effective DG projects may not be realised under current market rules. • Local electricity trading (LET) & local network credits (LNCs) could increase DG uptake. • LET and LNC could improve sizing & operation of cogeneration and other DG. • LET and LNC could remove perverse incentives to duplicate network infrastructure. - Abstract: Current charging methods for network infrastructure and recompense for distributed energy may not result in optimum system solutions. Once feed-in tariffs to support the development of renewable generation are phased out, the payment for grid exports is usually based on the wholesale energy value alone. Network charges are generally levied in full, with few attempts to offer a partial charge, or completely waived. Local Electricity Trading (LET) and Local Network Credits (LNCs) offer one approach to reforming charge structures. This paper examines the effects of LET and LNC on different stakeholders in four virtual trials of medium scale distributed generation projects around Australia, and the implications for policy. The trials found the large value gap between behind the meter systems and grid exports may lead to duplication of network assets, inefficient sizing and operation of distributed generators, and a lack of incentive for dispatchable generators to operate at peak times. The trials indicated that in most circumstances, the combination of LNC and LET addresses all four problems identified to some degree.
[en] Highlights: • Few power sector performance indicators in Karnataka improved after 1999 reforms. • Some indicators are lagging behind other major Indian states. • Karnataka's Power sector Performance Index (PPI) value improved after reform. • PPI rank also increased vis-a-vis other major Indian states. - Abstract: With the enactment of Karnataka Electricity Reform Act (KERA), 1999, Karnataka power utilities underwent major restructuring. The objective of the paper is to assess the Karnataka power sector performance in the context of reforms, using select technical and financial indicators. A Power Sector Performance Index (PPI) is computed to capture the overall performance. Some indicators, like energy and peak deficits, per capita electricity consumption, have shown improvement after reform, nonetheless, they still lag behind other major Indian states. The installed capacity increased fairly after reform, however, the capacity utilisation rate declined in the post-reform period. On the positive note, the transmission and distribution (T&D) loss in Karnataka reduced tremendously since 1999 as compared to other major states. Average revenue realisation rate rose after reform, however, the realisation rate varies widely across consumer categories, due to cross-subsidization by few categories. Overall, the PPI value increased from 1998–99 to 2012–13 indicating better performance after reform. The ranking improved from 8th to 3th position, implying higher progress over time vis-a-vis other states as well. There is, however, scope for further improvement. Future policies should focus on toning up poor capacity utilisation rate, and reducing price differential and power subsidy burden of the government.