Results 1 - 10 of 54
Results 1 - 10 of 54. Search took: 0.018 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] About 220.000 people are working in French nuclear industry which makes this industry sensitive to issues like recruitment and training. This industry has a poor image among the young generation and faces difficulties to enlist. The main difficulty is to convince young graduates that nuclear industry is an industry for the future despite the fact that only one reactor is being built in France and the shutdown of Fessenheim. In order to overcome this difficulty the government has launched the EDEC plan. The EDEC plan will allow actions for preserving jobs, increasing attractiveness of the nuclear sector and supporting graduating curriculum in nuclear engineering. (A.C.)
[en] The implementation of the extended producer responsibility (EPR) for e-waste is an important measure to develop an ecological civilization. In order to advance manufacturing enterprises to effectively implement resource and environmental responsibility, this study investigates the main causes of environmental regulation failure from the perspective of government and enterprises. The game theory was used to establish an evolutionary game model between government regulatory departments and electronic and electrical products’ manufacturing enterprises. A system dynamic model was utilized to construct the stock-flow graph of the game between government and enterprises, and to carry out simulation analysis under different strategies. The results found that the probability of an enterprise undertaking extended responsibility gradually increased and stabilized with the increase of government supervision and punishment intensity; the government’s regulatory probability and punishment are important factors affecting the enterprises’ compliance with regulations and responsibilities. The study suggests that government should focus on strengthening environmental regulations from the aspects of improving laws and regulations, establishing a regular monitoring system and innovating incentive and constraint mechanism.
[en] Radiology residents review information available on fellowship program websites for shortlisting programs and for applying for fellowships. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of musculoskeletal (MSK) fellowship program websites. The content of US and Canadian MSK fellowship program websites was evaluated using 25 distinct criteria in the following domains: application, recruitment, research, clinical, education, clinical work, benefits. Programs without websites were excluded from analysis. In Canada and the USA, there were 100 MSK fellowship programs, 90 of them having dedicated websites. The average score across all programs was 9.5/25 or 38%. The most comprehensive program included 18/25 items or 72%. The least comprehensive program included only 1/25 items or 4%. The median score across all programs was 9/25 or 36%.More programs included information on the application process (65.5/90, 72.8%; SD 24.7%) than in education/research (24/90, 26.7%; SD 17.3%) or incentives (12.5/90, 13.9%; SD 7.8%).Mean scores amongst US schools did not differ based on geographical distribution (p = 0.32), although they did by rank; schools ranked in the bottom tier scored lower than the unranked, middle, and top tier schools (p < 0.05). The majority of MSK fellowship program websites are not comprehensive. Areas that needed the most improvement include incentives, education/research, clinical teaching, and recruitment information. Addressing these insufficiencies can help programs in easing the application process for prospective fellows and enhance recruitment.
[en] The objectives of Energiewende or energy turnaround program in Germany are to increase the share of renewable energy, reduce electricity consumption and decrease greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission in the form of CO2. The first objective has been achieved as renewables share in Germany has reached about 30 %, but the other objectives have not been as successful. As an addition, Germany is reducing the role of nuclear electricity, which is GHG free, and replacing the capacity with renewables. It has been identified that natural fluctuation of renewable energy production still requires backups from fossil plants, which are CO2 emitters. This makes the third objective even harder to achieve. Furthermore, electricity price and government subsidy has seen steady increase and household users are paying the price due to electricity production price, grid expansion and modernization, etc. Nonetheless, the program still receive broad acceptance from the public due to strong political support. Indonesia should learn from Germany with respect to cost, effect and public acceptance upon implementing the renewable energy program in order to manage electricity price and subsidy because they are sensitive factors leading to social disturbance and since Indonesia still adopts subsidy regime to create affordable electricity. Other factors such as geographical condition, energy storage, research and development cost need to be considered for greater self-reliance in renewable energy development and avoiding Indonesia from becoming merely a technology market. (author)
[en] Looking Forward: • Need to think more broadly about how we value energy systems, especially infrastructure assets as parts of larger systems. • “Need” for clean energy and expanded markets is clear, but without economic incentive, it is unlikely to happen at scale. • Ones that can be expanded to new markets (electricity poverty). • Natural hazards are devastating infrastructure at an increasing rate and substantial cost: • Fuel supply chains; • System failure and cascading impacts; • Transmission and distribution vulnerability; • SMR and MMR technology is important in these contexts.
[en] Environmental goods represent a trade market of approximately US$1 trn annually. Reducing barriers to trade and investment would tangibly support cost effectiveness and efficient decarbonization of the energy sector, leading to more sustainable and accessible energy systems. Understanding and tackling non-tariff measures (NTMs) that impact on the low-carbon energy sector should be a priority in a country's efforts to successfully address its energy trilemma - the links between energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability. These three dimensions can contribute to the prosperity and competitiveness of individual countries. As a trade barrier, NTMs frequently relate to customs procedures and import requirements, technical standards and other regulations that impede the flow of goods and services. These are estimated to have twice the impact on trade than tariff barriers, although they are generally less understood and more difficult to address and remove. With energy mostly neglected in conventional trade policy in the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as in bilateral free trade agreements, this report aims to support policy-makers in building an NTM-related agenda. The World Energy Council urges countries and the WTO to assess whether initiatives to phase out NTMs on products covered in the current multi-lateral environmental goods tariff negotiations would be beneficial. While barriers to trade and investment in energy goods and services are starting to be addressed, the process of integrating the energy dimension to trade policy is still in its infancy. As the world's largest economies start to use private capital to finance low-carbon technologies, the elimination of tariffs and NTMs can be an equally powerful economic force.
[fr]Les biens environnementaux representent un marche commercial d'approximativement 1 000 milliards de dollars par an.1 La reduction des barrieres au commerce et a l'investissement contribuerait de facon manifeste a une decarbonisation efficace et efficiente du secteur de l'energie, conduisant a des systemes energetiques plus durables et accessibles. Comprendre et s'attaquer aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT) qui affectent le secteur energetique bas carbone devraient etre un des efforts prioritaires des pays pour reussir a equilibrer le trilemme energetique (securite energetique, equite energetique et environnement durable). Ces trois dimensions peuvent contribuer a la prosperite et a la competitivite de chaque pays. En tant que barrieres commerciales, les MNT se rapportent aux procedures douanieres et aux besoins d'importation, aux normes techniques et autres reglementations qui entravent les echanges de biens et services. On estime que les MNT ont deux fois plus d'impact sur le commerce que les barrieres tarifaires2 bien qu'elles soient generalement moins bien comprises et plus difficiles a resoudre et a supprimer. L'energie est souvent negligee dans la politique commerciale conventionnelle de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) et dans les accords bilateraux de libre-echange; ce rapport a donc pour objectif d'aider les decideurs politiques a elaborer un programme concernant les MNT. Le Conseil Mondial de l'energie exhorte les pays et l'OMC a evaluer les benefices d'initiatives visant a supprimer les MNT sur les produits relevant des actuelles negociations tarifaires plurilaterales sur les biens environnementaux. Alors que l'on commence a s'interesser aux obstacles au commerce et a l'investissement concernant les biens et services energetiques, le processus d'integration de la dimension energetique dans les politiques commerciales n'en est encore qu'a ses balbutiements. Les plus grandes economies mondiales se lancent dans l'utilisation de capital prive pour financer les technologies bas carbone: la suppression des droits de douane et des MNT peut etre un moteur economique tout aussi performant.
[en] Electricity generation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in many countries. Most emissions trading systems (ETS) therefore address emissions from electricity generation. The de-sign of an ETS and the structure and regulation of the electricity sector have a large impact on the environmental effectiveness and the quality of the carbon price signal. This report analyses the interaction of carbon and electricity markets in California. The price in the Californian ETS is largely determined by the floor price. Its impact on the electricity sector is limited because of a monolithic capacity mix and stringent complementary policies. This case study is part of the project “Influence of market structures and market regulation on the carbon market” that aims to identify the impact of market structures and regulations on carbon markets and to investigate the interdependencies between carbon and energy markets in Europe, California, China, South Korea, and Mexico.
[en] Whereas waste managers are looking for new ways to valorise their resources which are sometimes difficult to process, the emergence of pyro-gasification could be interesting for the development of projects. It offers a variety of technical solutions which can be adapted to local needs, but it still lacks public support and even a well suited regulation. These various solutions are briefly overviewed, and the energy valorization aspect is outlined
[en] At the end of 2018, around 9,000 biogas plants were in operation in Germany (of which 8,800 biogas production plants with on-site power generation and around 200 biogas upgrading plants). Due to the fact that the fixed EEG tariff for a large number of plants will expire by 2030, new requirements and challenges will arise for the biogas plants. The aim of the project is to find economically and ecologically feasible operating models until 2030 and thereby to contribute to changing the energy system. For this purpose, options for existing biogas plants were identified and possible plant concepts assessed. Based on the results of evaluation of various plant concepts and operating models,best options were analysed with respect to the costs and GHG balances. In the project, small-scale plants based on manure, agricultural plants based on energy crops or manure and bio-waste plants were considered. For each of these plant concepts three operating models were analysed in detail: (1) Reduction of the energetic substrate input (share of energy crops) by 50 % without significant technical changes at the biogas plant, (2) Flexibilisation of biogas production and electricity provision and (3) upgrading of biogas to biomethane. Subsequently, options for action for the principal feasibility of the identified operating models were examined. For the appropriate consideration of ecological, economic and energy system aspects it is recommended to consider initial plant size and regional framework conditions. Whereas for smaller biogas plants - depending on regional conditions - incentives for the switch to BM 1 (substrate reduction) or BM 2 (flexibilisation) are recommended, for larger biogas plants (> 250 m biogas/h) the change to BM 3 (biomethane) is preferred.
[de]Ende 2018 wurden in Deutschland etwa 9.000 Biogasanlagen (davon 8.800 Biogasproduktionsanlagen mit Vor-Ort Verstromung und rd. 200 Biogasaufbereitungsanlagen) betrieben. In Hinblick darauf, dass bis 2030 für eine Vielzahl von Anlagen die EEG-Festvergütung ausläuft, ergeben sich für die Biogasanlagen neue Anforderungen und Herausforderungen. Zentrale Fragen des Vorhabens „Biogas2030“ sind, welche Optionen für den Anlagenbestand nach Ablauf der 20-jährigen Vergütungsdauer existieren und inwiefern bestehende Anlagen in „sinnvolle“ Betriebsmodelle wechseln können. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen zum Anlagenbestand wurden ökologische und ökonomische sowie aus energiesystemtechnischer Sicht sinnvolle Anlagenkonzepte für Biogasbestandsanlagen anhand verschiedener Bewertungskriterien identifiziert und hinsichtlich der Kosten und der THG-Bilanz detaillierter bewertet. Im Vorhaben wurden als Anlagenkonzepte Güllekleinanlagen, landwirtschaftliche Anlagen mit NawaRo –bzw. Gülle basiertem Substratmix und Bioabfallanlagen betrachtet, für die jeweils drei Betriebsmodelle näher analysiert wurden: Betriebsmodell 1: Reduktion NawaRo-Anteils im energetischen Substratinputs um 50% ohne wesentliche technischen Änderungen an der Anlage, Betriebsmodell 2: Flexibilisierung der Biogaserzeugung und Strombereitstellung (Flex) und Betriebsmodell 3: Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Anschließend wurden Handlungsoptionen zur verbesserten Umsetzbarkeit der Betriebsmodelle untersucht. Zur angemessenen Berücksichtigung der ökologischen, ökonomischen und energiesystemtechnischen Aspekte wird empfohlen nach Anlagengröße und regionalen Rahmenbedingungen zu differenzieren.Während für die kleineren Bestandsanlagen - je nach regionalen Gegebenheiten - Anreize für die Umstellung auf BM 1 (Substratreduktion) oder BM 2 (Flex) zu setzen sind, wird ausschließlich für die größeren Biogasanlagen (> 250 m Biogas/h) der Wechsel in das BM 3 (Biomethan) präferiert
[en] There is a growing focus on the role of renewable energy (RE) policies such as feed-in tariffs (FITs), renewable portfolio standards (RPSs), subsidies, incentives, and research and development in the global energy policy mix and in promoting environmental sustainability. Although most developed countries have well-formulated RE policies, in developing countries, such policies face many barriers. This study analyzes the policies, drivers, and barriers to RE deployment for fostering environmental sustainability in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In the GCC region, the need for economic diversification to reduce dependency on single resource, diminishing hydrocarbon reserve, loss of oil export revenue, climate change mitigation pledges, and abundant solar energy resource are the key drivers for diversifying energy sources to include RE. However, the apparent lack of consolidated policy framework for wide-scale RE utilization calls for a well-articulated policy to advance RE development in each member state. Although FIT and RPS approaches could be effective for initial deployment of small-scale RE projects, a competitive tendering and auctioning mechanisms are more suitable for large-scale projects. Whereas, developing effective energy codes could successfully promote RE deployment, the increased share of RE in energy supply would have synergistic impacts on the region. The GHG emissions avoidance expected to be achieved by the GCC countries will vary between 5 and 247 million tons of CO2 equivalent by 2030. The fulfillment of inspirational RE targets for 2030 would contribute in fulfilling climate change mitigation pledges, environmental sustainability, economic growth, and generating new jobs.