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[en] It is estimated that the cumulative financial impact of reactor scrams on U.S. nuclear plants approaches one-half billion dollars per year. At the current scram rate in the U.S., the incremental affect on power generation costs is estimated to be almost 1 Mill/KWhr. These figures involve calculations which were reinforced by input from a simple questionnaire used to gather information about the financial impacts of reactor scrams. The financial impact of reactor scrams is expanding into new areas and involves both obvious and hidden elements. Some are felt immediately while others may not be felt for 20 years or more. In addition to the visible financial impacts, the organizational disruption resulting from a reactor scram is widespread
[en] No matter how accomplished and competent professionals are in their fields, it may take a long time after employment for them to become organizationally effective. For this and other reasons, management developed a training program designed to orient staff engineers at Hanford. The task was designated as an award-free item, which added an incentive to meet the challenge, and the scope was developed to include both the Radiological Engineer and the Quality Engineer. The training program was designed to establish and maintain the credibility of the professional, to provide consistency in the manner of doing business, and to reverse a trend of high turnover within several disciplines. So far results are positive, and is improving the time required for the professional engineer to become organizationally effective. 6 figures
[en] Clean energy technologies that cost more than fossil fuel technologies require support through research and development (R&D). Learning-by-doing relates historical cost decreases to accumulation of experience. A learning investment is the amount of subsidy that is required to reach cost parity between a new technology and a conventional technology. We use learning investments to compare the relative impacts of two stylized types of R&D. We define curve-following R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing knowledge that would have otherwise been gained through learning-by-doing. We define curve-shifting R&D to be R&D that lowers costs by producing innovations that would not have occurred through learning-by-doing. We show that if an equal investment in curve-following or curve-shifting R&D would produce the same reduction in cost, the curve-shifting R&D would be more effective at reducing the learning investment needed to make the technology competitive. The relative benefit of curve-shifting over curve-following R&D is greater with a high starting cost and low learning rate. Our analysis suggests that, other things equal, investments in curve-shifting R&D have large benefits relative to curve-following R&D. In setting research policy, governments should consider the greater benefits of cost reductions brought about by transformational rather than incremental change. - Highlights: • A stylized analysis of two types of R&D investment provided. • Other things equal, curve-shifting R&D is more effective than curve-following R&D. • Governments should consider the benefits of transformational change in setting research priorities.
[en] The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)
[en] Environmental quotas tend to compound the welfare cost of pre-existing tax distortions in the labor market. Under plausible parameters, this source of welfare loss can easily be large enough to outweigh the entire partial equilibrium welfare gain from the quota. Environmental taxes induce the same interaction effect, however they also raise government revenues. If the revenues are used to reduce distortionary taxes, then most of this interaction effect can be offset. Therefore, revenue-raising can be a necessary condition for environmental policies to increase welfare
[en] This memo aims to provide an overview of environmentally harmful subsidies in the Netherlands. Eliminating environmentally harmful subsidies is an important first step toward including the environmental effects in prices and weigh the use of natural resources explicitly in decisions made by citizens, businesses and governments. Particularly in the sectors energy, transport and agriculture significant amounts of environmentally harmful subsidies are available. For the Netherlands this amounts to 5-10 billion euros in 2010. The exact amount is difficult to estimate depends strongly on the definition and the method of calculation. This also goes for determining the hazardous effects on the environment.
[nl]Deze notitie beoogt een globaal overzicht te geven van milieuschadelijke subsidies in Nederland. Afschaffen van milieuschadelijke subsidies is een belangrijke eerste stap om milieu beter in de prijzen te krijgen en het beslag op natuurlijke hulpbronnen explicieter mee te wegen in beslissingen van burgers, bedrijven en overheden. Met name in de sectoren energie, verkeer en landbouw zijn nog substantiele bedragen aan milieuschadelijke subsidies te vinden. Voor geheel Nederland gaat het in 2010 om een bedrag tussen 5 en 10 miljard euro. De exacte omvang hiervan blijkt lastig te bepalen en is sterk afhankelijk van de afbakening en de wijze van berekening. Dit geldt ook voor de bepaling van de schadelijke effecten voor het milieu.
[en] The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)
[en] By way of papers given by IGBE chairman Heinz-Werner Meyer and, later, by a publication in the 'Einheit' magazine, IGBE claimed that more promotional funds had been spent on nuclear energy than on coal for power generation. Prof. Joachim Grawe, VDEW head excutive, contradicted to this in an open letter dated 14th March 1989. H.-W. Meyer's response to this letter (23rd March 1989) is commented on by VDEW in this article. (orig.)
[de]Bei Vortraegen ihres Vorsitzenden Heinz-Werner Meyer und spaeter durch eine Veroeffentlichung in der Zeitschrift Einheit hat die IGBE behauptet, die Kernenergie sei mit hoeheren Summen gefoerdert worden als die Verstromung der deutschen Steinkohle. Dem hat Prof. Joachim Grawe, der Hauptgeschaeftsfuehrer der VDEW, in einem offenen Brief vom Maerz 1989 widersprochen. Zur Gegenaeusserung von H.-W. Meyer (23. Maerz 1989) macht die VDEW die folgenden Anmerkungen. (orig.)
[en] The new order in the former Communist countries, the growth of deregulation and trade liberalization, and the opening up of formerly closed countries to outside investment have worked to increase the available exploratory acreage for the oil and gas industry. It is estimated that the total amount of this acreage available in the 1990s is about twice what it was in the 1970s. This is accompanied by an apparent trend toward lower government takes and better terms as governments are forced to compete with one another to attract investment. A particular trend is noted among governments to improve terms and conditions for what are internationally called small fields (those in the 10-30 million bbl class) and in deep water or other marginal conditions. Factors to be taken into account in evaluating the potential profitability of an investment in a developing country are discussed. Various types of fiscal systems are considered, including regressive regimes involving royalties and rentals, progressive features such as sliding royalties and taxes which increase as the field becomes more profitable, hybrid systems, and specialty incentives. Examples are presented to illustrate analyses of different fiscal regimes and the economic risk involved in an oil production investment. 6 tabs