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[en] The precession of orbital and spin angular momentum vectors has been observed in a pump-probe study of the 4P fine-structure states of atomic potassium. A femtosecond pump pulse prepared a coherent superposition of the two fine-structure components. A time-delayed probe pulse then ionized the system after it had been allowed to evolve freely. Oscillations recorded in the ion signal reflect the evolution of the orientation of the orbital and spin angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. This interpretation gives physical insight into the cause of the half-period phase shift observed when the relative polarizations of the laser pulses were changed from parallel to perpendicular. Finally, it is shown that these changes in the orientation of the spin momentum vector of the system can be utilized to produce highly spin-polarized free electrons on the femtosecond scale. (author)
[en] Exact solution for the eigenvalue problem of the spin Hamiltonian for the unpaired electron and two or three magnetically equivalent protons have been obtained. Besides the splitting of the order of a2/(vsub(e)+vsub(p)) in both the upper and lower branch of the ENDOR spectrum, one obtains the differences of the order of a3/(vsub(e)+vsub(p))2 in the splittings of the two branches. Theory demonstrates that for three equivalent protons (rotating methyl group) resonances belonging to the I=1/2 state in the presence of lines belonging to I=3/2 can be detected only from the relative intensities of the observed lines
[en] The fine-structure intervals of the lowest two triplet D states of 4He have been obtained by a new method: Ground-state atoms are excited by a discharge to the triplet metastable state, which then undergoes a two-step optical excitation to the triplet D states, where level-crossing measurements are made. The experimental results for 3D1-3D3 (MHz) are 1400.67 plus-or-minus 0.29 and 591.25 plus-or-minus 0.14 for the 3 3D and 4 3D states, respectively; for 3D2-3D3 (MHz) they are 75.97 plus-or-minus 0.23 and 36.15 plus-or-minus 0.24 for 3 3D and 4 3D. These values are much more precise than the previously available data, obtained by optical, particle-bombardment level crossing, or beam-foil quantum-beat spectroscopy, and are consistent with the previous data except for one case, where a previous measurement of 3 3D2-3 3D3 by electron bombardment level-crossing spectroscopy is believed to be in error. These new experimental values for the fine structures of the triplet D state of 4He clearly indicate the inadequateness of existing theoretical calculations of these fine structures
[en] Seventy-one occurrences of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with radio bursts, seemingly associated with type III bursts/fine structures (FSs), in the centimeter-metric frequency range during 2003-2005, were obtained with the spectrometers at the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and the Culgoora radio spectrometer and are presented. The statistical results of 68 out of 71 events associated with the radio type III bursts or FSs during the initiation or early stages of the CMEs indicate that most CMEs contain the emissions of radio type III bursts/FSs near the time of the CME's onset, in spite of their fast or slow speeds. Therefore, we propose that type III bursts and FSs are possible precursors of the onset of CMEs. We stress that the radio type III bursts/FSs in the centimeter-metric wavelength region and the CME transients possibly occurred in conjunction with the origin of the coronal precursor structures. Thus, the statistical results support the suggestions that type III bursts/FSs are indicators of extra energy input into the corona at the CMEs' onset, and that the type III bursts/FSs are produced primarily due to a coronal instability which eventually triggers the CME process. This may signify that the centimeter-metric radio bursts corresponding to or near the CME's onset are caused by the disturbed corona (possibly including minor magnetic reconnections).
[en] Resummation of the perturbative series for the amplitude of lepton pair production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is performed based on the Watson theorem and the hypothesis of infrared stability. An explicit expression for this amplitude is obtained, which is valid to within terms of the ninth order in the fine structure constant.
[en] The fine structure found by Gu, Hill and Rosenwald between asymptotic theory eigenfrequencies and the observed eigenfrequencies reported by Hill and Gu is interpreted as the result of conditions not being met for the applicability of asymptotic theory at one or more radii in the solar interior. From an inversion of the observed fine structure, reasonably good agreement is obtained between observation and theory for either a localized perturbation in internal structure at r/R ∼ 0.06 or at r/R ∼ 0.23. The latter solution is, however, the better one. The amplitude of the perturbation in the mean molecular weight required to produce the fine structure is also inferred. 11 refs., 2 figs
[en] The structure fine constant (α) plays an important role in relativity, quantum physics and electromagnetism. It characterizes the strength of interaction between light and matter as described in the quantum electromagnetic theory. The fact that the value of the inverse of α nears an integer (137) has raised a lot of speculations. According to the Dirac theory, 1/α represents the limit of Z for elements: elements whose atomic number is over 137 cannot exist. Initially α represents the ratio between the electron speed on the first orbit of the relativistic Bohr atom and the speed of light: α = e2/(4*π*ε0*ℎ*c) where e is the elementary charge and ε the vacuum permittivity. The most accurate value of α obtained so far is α = 1/137035999037 (91), its measurement was based on the trapping of ultra-cold rubidium atoms. Recent studies on quasar spectra have shown that the α constant has changed by less than 1/10.000 of percent in 10 billion years. (A.C.)