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[en] The RMN is a French national network of radioactivity measurements in the environment. RMN is unique in Europe, its aim is to centralized all the radioactivity measurement performed in France in the framework of radioactivity monitoring and to make these data available to all citizens. Network members are local and national administrations, health agencies, nuclear industries and associations. A laboratory must have a certification to provide measurements. The aim of certification is to maintain a high standard of quality. At the end of 2018, about 2.500.000 measurements had been added to the RMN data-bank, they concerned various media like air, water, soil, milk,.. and food products. A web site (mesure-radioacvite.fr) associated to the RMN ata-bank allows anyone to follow the time evolution of the environment radiological status. (A.C.)
[en] President Macron announced in the framework of the Multi-Year Energy Program (MYEP) the promise of the closure of fourteen nuclear reactors before 2035, i.e. a quarter of the French fleet, including two reactors in addition to Fessenheim before 2028. This announcement, which in fact postpones decisions to a very distant future and leaves open the option of replacing current nuclear power by new plants (EPR), resembles more a political compromise than the expression of a real industrial and energy strategy. This situation is all the more astonishing (and worrying) since the road is in fact all mapped out
[fr]Le president Macron a annonce dans le cadre de la Programmation pluriannuelle de l'energie (PPE) la promesse de la fermeture de quatorze reacteurs nucleaires avant 2035, soit le quart du parc francais, dont deux reacteurs en plus de Fessenheim avant 2028. Cette annonce, qui de fait repousse les decisions a un avenir tres lointain et laisse ouverte l'option du remplacement du nucleaire actuel par de nouvelles centrales (EPR), ressemble davantage a un compromis politique qu'a l'expression d'une veritable strategie industrielle et energetique. Cette situation est d'autant plus etonnante (et preoccupante) que la route est en realite toute tracee
[en] In 1975, J. Chirac, then France's prime minister, made a speech at the European nuclear conference in which he announced that energy-saving measures and nuclear energy were adequate responses to the oil crisis. In his speech, France's PM insisted on winning energy independence from third-party countries and on the understanding and acceptance of the energy policy by the public. This archive document is composed of a few abstracts of the speech and of a chart giving important milestones of the French civil nuclear programme. (A.C.)
[en] The Georges Besse II plant is located on the Tricastin industrial platform, the historic site of the French nuclear industry since 1960, and is specialized in uranium enrichment for the fabrication of nuclear fuels. In 2011 the Georges Besse II plant took over the EURODIF plant and since then centrifugation instead of gaseous diffusion technology has been used for uranium enrichment. This technology change reduced by 98% the electric power consumption of the plant and no more water is taken from the nearby Rhone river as a water closed system has been set. Plant's buildings are only half as tall as EURODIF's ones which allows a better integration in its surroundings. The Georges Besse II plant was designed to have the least possible environmental impact and earned the triple quality ISO certification concerning health, safety and environment. (A.C.)
[en] This analysis of the frequency, intensity, and duration of thermal inversions is based on daily minimum (tn) and maximum (tx) temperatures recorded over 3 years at 16 pairs of data loggers located under forest cover in the Jura Mountains of France. Each pair consists of a logger located at the bottom of a depression and another located higher up either nearby (local site) or more than 40 km away (regional site). The daily frequency of inversions is maximum at local sites for tn (50%) and minimum for tx at regional sites (4%). The maximum intensity of the inversions reaches 15.1 °C for tn and 16.2 °C for tx. The average intensity is about 2 °C: 1.5 °C for tx at local sites and 2.4 °C at regional sites. The duration of inversions is generally short: 60% of them last less than a day. Of the inversions that last for more than 1 day, 15% exceed 3 days and the maximum duration observed is 22 days. The relationship between the diurnal amplitude of temperature and the frequency, intensity, and duration of inversions indicates that mesoscale atmospheric conditions directly influence inversions.
[en] In October 2019, the Folz report, 'The construction of the EPR in Flamanville', proposed an uncompromising analysis of difficulties met on this project. Then, EDF published an action plan, 'Excell' with the objective of regaining confidence in the French nuclear sector and to respond to these difficulties. In this article, the author comments the content of this EDF report. Three main issues are therein addressed: the strengthening of industrial quality (certification of fabrication processes and of traceability tools), skills (a stress on education and training), and a stronger governance of large nuclear projects
[en] To investigate the comprehensive remediating effects of plant residues on biological and chemical properties and the long-term dynamics of these effects, litter from Caragana korshinskii (caragana) or Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (jujube) was mixed with three types of soil that were contaminated with 12.49, 27.54, and 45.37 g kg−1 of petroleum. The mixtures were incubated at 20–25 °C with consistent soil moisture for 360 days. Subsequently, the litter impacts on the soil microbial population, the activities of 12 types of soil hydrolytic, and redox enzymes related to the cycling of C, N, and P, and the available N, P, and K contents were determined during the incubation. The results indicated that both types of litter significantly accelerated the reproduction of soil microbes and significantly increased the activities of most of the hydrolytic enzymes and the available nutrient contents after the short-term treatments, while the litters usually simultaneously depressed the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the slightly and moderately contaminated soils. However, the comprehensive remediating effects of the litters on the lightly contaminated soil significantly decreased over time while it recovered to some extent at the end of the experiment. The remediating effects on the seriously contaminated soil exhibited the opposite trend, and their remediating effects on the moderately contaminated soil exhibited continuous weakening. Generally, the remediating effects of the caragana litter were more noticeable than those of the jujube litter, except for the effect on the slightly contaminated soil after 180 days of treatment.
[en] The average radiation exposure of the French population is 4.5 mSv per year that can be broken up into 2.9 mSv/year due to natural radioactivity and 1.6 mSv/year due to human activities. These 4.5 mSv per year can also be partitioned as follows: 35% due to medical exposure, 32% due to radon, 14% due the nuclides in the earth crust, 12% due the food, 7% due to cosmic radiation and less than 1% due to industrial and military activities. This article presents the different sources of radiation and parameters that have an impact on the man exposure for instance altitude for cosmic radiation, or the type of soil for radon, or the fact that seafood concentrates radio-nuclides naturally, or that cigarettes contain traces of Po210. (A.C.)