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[en] Nuclear industry is the 3. industrial sector in France, it generates a global sales revenue of 47.5 billion euros and involves about 3000 firms employing more than 220.000 qualified people. This infographic shows that all the stages of the nuclear chain are present in France from uranium processing to waste management via enrichment or recycling or reactor construction. It is also shown that nuclear activities (research centers, nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication plants, waste storages sites, and engineering activities) are spread all over the country except in Brittany and Corsica. (A.C.)
[en] How do energy innovations emerge and develop? How do energy systems respond to the emergence of new energy technologies? What role does the institutional environment play in setting the energy technology agenda? These are the questions posed by the thesis 'Re-enchanting the maritime through the energy promise. Technologies, trajectories, speeches'. Taking marine renewable energy (MRE) as the subject of study, it examines the processes that led these technologies to present themselves as emerging innovations at the turn of the 2000's, as the fabrication of a new maritime-energy 'waiting horizon'
[fr]Comment les innovations energetiques emergent-elles et se developpent-elles? Comment reagissent les systemes energetiques face a l'irruption de nouvelles technologies energetiques? Quel role joue l'environnement institutionnel dans la mise a l'agenda des technologies de l'energie? Telles sont les questions que pose la these 'Reenchanter le maritime par la promesse energetique. Technologies, trajectoires, discours'. En prenant les energies marines renouvelables (EMR) comme objet d'etude, elle examine les processus qui ont conduit ces technologies a se presenter comme des innovations emergentes au tournant des annees 2000, comme la fabrication d'un nouvel 'horizon d'attente' maritimo-energetique
[en] French nuclear industry has launched a program for renewing itself while improving industrial quality, competencies and management of big projects. The challenge is all the more complex as the industrial partners are numerous and very diverse either in size or industrial strategies. The 6 points are summarized as follows: digesting the recent feedback experience on reactor construction to be ready to propose a renewed nuclear industry in 2021, drawing a precise mapping of nuclear industry in terms of industrialists, policy makers, craft unions, administrations and so on, improving communication and information exchanges between all the players, acknowledging that nuclear energy contributes strongly to energy independence, acknowledging that nuclear energy is reliable: despite the covid crisis the electricity supply has been assured, and acknowledging that the nuclear industry grows in France while all the other industrial sectors are declining. (A.C.)
[en] The mapping of the French nuclear industry was performed in 2019, it will give visibility to all its players whatever they are: firms, policy makers, craft unions, training bodies or administrations. The mapping was made through a questionnaire survey similar to the previous one made in 2014 but completed with international and digital transformation issues. It appears that 220.000 people are employed in nuclear industry compared to 218.000 in 2014 and they worked in more than 3000 enterprises and their qualification level is higher than the average in other industrial sectors. EDF and Framatome have certified more than 600 suppliers of equipment and services at the level 'nuclear standards'. More than half of the 3000 enterprises have export activities which is far more than in other industrial sectors. Nuclear industry handles all the activity fields that are necessary to its proper working, for instance the share of work for French firms in the construction of an EPR can reach 80% while in wind energy this share was only 40% in 2015. (A.C.)
[en] The south-eastern region of France is the first industrial region of the country with more than 500.000 jobs, 43.000 of which are in the nuclear industry. This industrial tissue is composed of sites of big companies like Framatome or Orano and of a variety of intermediate- or small-size enterprises like Filtration SA, Sileane or Curium. Filtration SA produces among others some filters of the primary and secondary cooling systems of reactors. Sileane develops intelligent robots that can face random situations. The KAMIDO robot can recover unknown objects one by one from a loose bulk and has been adapted to repackage radioactive wastes. Curium is specialized in the management of pollutions and contaminations in facilities. (A.C.)
[en] The carbon-neutral policy implies to produce equal amount of greenhouse gases or less than the environment absorb naturally in the forests, meadows... The carbon-neutral policy is based on 2 tools: the low-carbon national strategy (SNBC) and the long-term plan for energy (PPE). SNBC's purpose is to implement a low-carbon economy in all industrial sectors by 2050. The PPE shows that the demand for electricity is expected to grow significantly in France by 2050 and it warns that the preponderance of any energy in the energy mix can be problematic in case of unavailability for whatever reason, so the PPE advocates for a diversified and balanced energy mix. The aim of such an energy mix by 2050 implies 2 strong actions to be taken: first implementing an efficient strategy for the development of renewable energies and secondly considering the construction of new reactors. The construction of new reactors would be a strong signal for the revitalization of the French industry as a whole, for about 3000 small and mid-sized businesses work in or for the nuclear sector. (A.C.)
[en] About 220.000 people are working in French nuclear industry which makes this industry sensitive to issues like recruitment and training. This industry has a poor image among the young generation and faces difficulties to enlist. The main difficulty is to convince young graduates that nuclear industry is an industry for the future despite the fact that only one reactor is being built in France and the shutdown of Fessenheim. In order to overcome this difficulty the government has launched the EDEC plan. The EDEC plan will allow actions for preserving jobs, increasing attractiveness of the nuclear sector and supporting graduating curriculum in nuclear engineering. (A.C.)
[en] Past analyses of historical nuclear construction costs have struggled to determine factors associated with cost declines and escalations. Additionally, the only published econometric studies of historical nuclear costs have used US and French data. Here, we analyze nuclear construction cost trends across seven countries and five decades. We present novel visualizations using Locally Estimated Scatterplot Smoothing (LOESS) of the relationship between cost and key variables, including leadtime, size, and country experience. We then build an Ordinary Least Squares regression model and conclude that leadtime and country experience have positive and significant correlations with cost. Finally, we discuss challenges to the causal validity of the regression and implications for future research. (author)
[en] Conclusion of the SFEN: French nuclear fleet is a key factor for achieving French but also European decarbonization. New Nuclear is competitive (with adequate political involvement). Time schedule visibility from the industry will be a key factor of success. By far, the best decision appears to build a first pair of reactors for a 1st production around 2030. This pair would be part of a larger programme (8-10 reactors or more). For the commissioning of these first reactors, in full compliance with the target 2035, the decision should be taken by 2021 at the latest.
[en] French authorities initiated the corona virus pandemic plan on March 14, 2020 and as a consequence EDF initiated its activity continuation plan, this plan was designed in the early 2000's when SRAS and H1N1 outbreaks occurred, its purpose is to maintain the electricity production. In normal situation a nuclear reactor requires 7 shifts of about 20 workers to ensure uninterrupted availability, 7 days a week and 24 hours a day. The activity continuation plan is implemented on the basis of 5 shifts instead of 7 in normal situation. This plan has been developed to face a rate of absenteeism of 40% for 2 to 3 weeks and of 25% for 12 weeks. This plan is geared towards focusing activities on essential ones: safety, reactor maintenance and electricity production, it includes a system for recalling workers who have recently left activities in nuclear plants for other functions, in order to have enough skilled staff available. (A.C.)