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[en] The IAEA Collaborating Centres Scheme provides the Agency with a means of designating eligible institutions as partners to assist in implementing selected IAEA programmatic activities. This scheme was initiated by the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications on a three-year pilot basis in 2004. After a successful pilot phase, the IAEA Director General approved the IAEA Collaborating Centres Scheme in 2008 and expanded it to all interested IAEA departments. Aerial is a not-for-profit, French Technology Resources Centre and Technical Institute for Food Industry. It is located at Illkirch, near Strasbourg, France and is designated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre for multidisciplinary applications of electron beam or X-ray technologies and related dosimetry, especially for food irradiation. Its work is being reviewed following a successful five-year period of formal collaboration and is submitting a request for a renewal of its IAEA Collaborating Centre status. Therefore, this gives me the opportunity to both showcase the achievements of this collaboration and illustrate how the Collaborating Centres Scheme can work in practice.
[en] Whereas there is not yet any offshore wind turbine farm along the French coast, three out of the eleven European factories producing wind turbines are located in France (in Saint-Nazaire, Cherbourg and Le Havre). They belong to different actors, General Electric and Siemens Gamesa which are represented by their subsidiaries (Alstom Energie and Areva Wind). These factories are briefly presented. The situation of the whole French sector is discussed: it nearly covers the whole range of activities, but some components still come from abroad, notably from China. The high level of competition in Europe is outlined. A second article focuses on a specific aspect of the floating wind energy sector to notice that oil companies are interested in entering this sector because technologies are close to those of oil offshore platforms
[en] The radiological surveillance program of French NPPs is based on the monitoring of 3 indices, measured at the beginning of refuelling outages. These indices are used to mark the radiological level of the circuits. - The loop index represents the overall state of the primary circuit contamination; - The reactor building (RB) index shows the contamination state of RB and auxiliary circuits; - The so-called ‘Cd-Zn-Te gamma spectrometry’ allows to define the origin of the contamination: 60Co, 110mAg, etc. It also helps select the chemical process to be implemented for decontamination if needed. These three indices are specified in a table. They are measured under the same conditions in each French NPP.
[en] This parliamentary report first recalls the objectives of the French energy policy as they are defined in a decree related to a preliminary dialogue for the PPE and the low-carbon strategy, in terms of mandatory energy savings, and regarding the carbon budget specific to the international transport and the French carbon print. Then, it discusses measures which have been already applied, are about to be applied or foreseen in favour of climate, and notably regarding the shutting down of coal-fired plants, to housing energy performance. The next parts present and comment legal and regulatory measures related to environmental assessment, to the struggle against the fraud on energy saving certificates, to the adaptation of the law to the case of overseas territories, to energy regulation, and to gas and electric power sales regulated prices.
[en] In 2018, EDF operated a standardized fleet in France: 58 pressurized water reactors from one vendor and one licence through the 900 MW series (34 reactors); the 1300 MW series (20 reactors); and the 1450 MW series (4 reactors). In total, 75% of the fleet was built between 1979 and 1990, the oldest reactor is 40 years old and the average age of the fleet is 30 years. Thus, LTO programmes and plant life management have been key issues for years.The principles of asset management as mentioned in ISO55000:20141 are implemented in EDF processes, from strategic levels to working levels. If the main goals are shared inside the company, the nuclear operating branch is organized following several programmes (e.g.ageing management, obsolescence, maintenance and optimization, refurbishment for major components) and projects (e.g. periodic safety reviews, post Fukushima improvements) that are quite autonomous to contribute in maintaining or improving the value of the assets.
[en] The author comments and discusses the content of a study jointly performed by RTE and the IEA which addresses the conditions and prerequisites in terms of technical feasibility for an electric power system displaying a high proportion of renewable energies by 2050. These conditions are notably to preserve the stability of the power system despite the reduction of present steerable means, to develop new means of compensation of the huge variability of wind and photovoltaic sources, to completely resize security reserves in order to compensate production hazards, and to very strongly extend and strengthen transport and distribution networks in order to integrate additional flows of wind and photovoltaic electric power. Thus, after having discussed how to guarantee the system stability despite the reduction of steerable means, the author wanders whether a power system controlled by a necessarily complex artificial intelligence will be able to be absolutely cyber-secured. He outlines that validation on actual existing networks will probably be very difficult, and that the envisaged evolution globally bears risks of degradation of the security of supply of electric power. He finally states that any evolution of the power system can only be based on perfectly proven and resilient technologies.
[en] Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident, increased attention has been paid to the vulnerability of the Spent Fuel Pools (SFP). This vulnerability is a concern for SFPs safety because generally the fuel clad is the sole barrier against fission product release in case of dewatering. Also, the potential source term is several times the one present in the reactor vessel. For example, French SFPs can harbour up to 2.5 times the number of fuel assemblies present in the core of a 900 MW(e) reactor. The IAEA “International Experts Meeting on Strengthening Research and Development Effectiveness in the Light of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant”, held in Vienna in 2015, concluded that one priority is to investigate SFP loss of coolant and loss of cooling accidents. The OECD/NEA edited a Status Report on Spent Fuel Pools under Loss-of-Cooling and Loss-of-Coolant Accident Conditions and afterward gathered and expert group to establish a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table on Spent Fuel Pools under Loss-of-Cooling and Loss-of-Coolant Accident Conditions. Several R&D programs dealing with SFP accidents were carried out. This PIRT concluded to the needs of further R&D concerning SFP accidental conditions and prioritized the topics to be investigated.
[en] Whereas the French law related to energy transition for a green growth defined the objective of energy self-sufficiency in overseas territories by 2030 (i.e. a higher objective than for the metropolitan mainland), this report proposes a synthesis and comparative analysis of studies performed for 6 territories (Mayotte, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Guyana by 2030, and Corsica by 2050). The main lessons learned from these studies are highlighted: possibility of a 100 pc renewable electricity mix, issue of energy management, high reduction of the importance of Diesel plants, significant share of varying wind and photovoltaic energies, decrease of the costs of the produced energy, electricity systems appeared to be steady. It discusses the context and conditions to reach the defined objectives. It presents the methodology and main hypotheses of the performed studies: elaboration of a data set, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the electricity mix for 5 scenarios, ex-post economic analysis, modelling of the 5 scenarios for each territory. Results are globally presented (an expected decrease of global costs of electricity, an electricity system which could remain steady in front of significant incidents), and the limitations and perspectives of the study are discussed. Results are then presented for the six different territories (data in 2017 and 2030, renewable potentials, mix analysis for each scenario, economic analysis of scenarios, focus on a specific scenario).
[fr]La loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte (LTECV) a fixe comme objectif de parvenir a l'autonomie energetique dans les departements et regions d'outre-mer (DROM) a l'horizon 2030. La Collectivite Territoriale de Corse vise ce meme objectif pour 2050. L'ADEME a souhaite mener une etude pour evaluer les implications techniques, organisationnelles et economiques qu'aurait un mix electrique tres fo tement renouvelable dans ces territoires, pour la majorite insulaires (Mayotte, La Reunion, la Guadeloupe, la Martinique, la Guyane et la Corse). Le vecteur electrique, permettant une production locale basee sur les energies renouvelables, et adapte a de multiples usages en substitution a des energies fossiles importees, pourrait jouer un role preponderant pour atteindre cet objectif ambitieux d'autonomie energetique. A l'heure de la revision des Programmations Pluriannuelles de l'Energie des ZNI (PPE), cette etude se veut un outil d'aide pour les instances decisionnelles afin de nourrir la reflexion des parties prenantes et ouvrir le champ des possibles.
[en] Epidemiological evidence of lung cancer risk from radon is based mainly on studies of underground miners where occupational exposures were, historically, relatively high in comparison to residential indoor exposure. However, radiation protection measures have caused radon levels in uranium mines to decrease significantly in more recent periods. Miners’ occupational exposure is limited to their working years while they are exposed to environmental radon at home over their entire lifetime. Even during their limited working years, workers spend much more time at home than in workplaces. The biological effect of radon in mines cannot be distinguished from the biological effect of residential radon. Therefore, for an exposure–risk relationship study of former uranium miners, excess radon-induced lung cancer cases should be related to the combined radon exposure cumulated in workplaces and at homes in excess of the radon exposure of the reference population. This is especially important when residential radon levels differ or vary significantly between miners and the reference population over the course of extended follow-up years. This paper reviews some recent studies on former uranium miners, shares what seems controversial to the author and wonders whether lifetime exposure at home to widely varying radon concentrations can actually impact the quality of exposure assessment, and hence impact the results of the exposure–risk relationship.