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[en] Geothermal energy is being widely exploited as a clean and renewable energy resource, and accurate assessments of potential resources can help us make reasonable planning and utilization of them. The volumetric method has been widely used in assessing geothermal resources owing to its simplicity and convenience. However, this method does not take into account the uncertainties of the input parameters involved, instead assigning a series of specific parameter values for each reservoir. Here, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to reduce these uncertainties while applying the volumetric method to estimate the geothermal resources of Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China. The basin contains two main types of thermal reservoirs: sandstone and carbonate. In applying Monte Carlo analysis to these reservoirs, the triangular and uniform distribution models for input parameters were used, and simulations were run with 1000–5000 iterations. Results indicate capacities of (1.182–2.283) × 1021 J (most likely 1.74 × 1021 J) and (1.299–2.546) × 1021 J (most likely 1.937 × 1021 J) for the Minghuazhen and Guantao sandstone reservoirs, respectively, and a capacity of (0.608–1.254) × 1021 J (most likely 8.450 × 1020 J) for the carbonate reservoir, finally, a range value (3.466–5.553) × 1021 J (most likely 4.400× 1021 J) for the whole Bohai Bay Basin.
[en] Geothermal energy is one of the important renewable energy resources. Understanding the nature of geothermal systems for the sustainable exploitation is important and isotope hydrology is one of the tools for the same. The isotopic content (δ18O, 3H, 222Rn etc.) of geothermal water provides information about their recharge sources, flow path and interactions with magmatic water. The aim of the paper is to identify the sources of geothermal water and their mixing processes
[en] Energy is only a utility, it should not lead to feelings or dreams; it is only a question of choosing the most efficient means of heating, cooking, moving, machining, etc., while preserving a pleasant environment. Whether by one means or another, this in itself is of no importance to the citizen. However, if we look at statements and positions, this rationality is often absent; orders of magnitude, availability in space and time, are often forgotten. We move from the pilot experiment to the upheaval of society, forgetting the stages that can be dead ends. We confuse objectives and means by getting enthusiastic about attractive but unrealistic ideas
[fr]L'energie n'est qu'une utilite, elle ne devrait entrainer ni sentiment ni reve; il s'agit seulement de choisir les moyens les plus efficaces pour se chauffer, cuisiner, se deplacer, usiner, etc., tout en preservant un environnement agreable. Que ce soit par une voie ou par une autre, cela n'a pas d'importance en soi pour le citoyen. Pourtant, si l'on regarde les declarations et prises de position, cette rationalite est souvent absente; les ordres de grandeur, les disponibilites dans l'espace et dans le temps, sont souvent oublies. On passe de l'experience pilote au bouleversement de la societe en oubliant les etapes qui peuvent etre des impasses. On confond objectifs et moyens en s'enthousiasmant sur des idees seduisantes mais irrealistes
[en] In this study, the energy and exergy analysis of the solar- and geothermal energy-powered Organic Rankine Cycle was made for different system configurations and Simav geothermal field was taken into consideration for system designs. The solar collectors were integrated into the system with thermal energy storage tank. The R-600a, Therminol VP-1, and molten salt were used as a working fluid in Organic Rankine Cycle, solar field, and thermal energy storage, respectively. As a result of this study, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the geothermal-powered ORC were decreased with the integration of solar energy. But the net power output of the system was increased. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the solar energy-aided, geothermal-powered Organic Rankine Cycle increase by the decrease in the solar collector area. The energy generation of the proposed system was calculated up to 305,713.5 kWh.
[en] This decree presents the regulation related to requests of exploration and exploitation titles for geothermal sites. It defines various economic and technical notions (search and exploitation costs, efficient operator and hydraulic connection), frames the notion of related, and addresses the assessment of the title validity duration
[en] Elevated temperatures of the rock and underground water under the cities, known as thermal islands, have been investigated for a long time. Nevertheless, all the causes of the origin and the influence of the individual factors on the degree of thermal contamination are still unknown. This phenomenon exists in all layers of the city, such as the atmosphere, surface, or subsurface. In our paper, we focused on examining and analyzing the temperatures in selected samples within the wider area of Bratislava and analyzing data from monitoring using geographic information systems - GIS. Such information is a valuable asset because it is known that the temperature below the city is higher than in rural areas in its vicinity. (authors)
[en] Hot springs occurring in two plunging ends of a very long and narrow anticline is unique. This study focuses on the hydrogeochemical characteristics and formation of the anticline-controlled thermal groundwater which may provide a perspective for geothermal resources potential. The low-to-middle temperature thermal groundwater of the Taozidang anticline in the Sichuan Basin, China, was examined to estimate the temperature of the deep reservoir and identify the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting the composition of hot water during circulation and evolution. The occurrences of thermal groundwater of these springs strongly controlled by anticline are in the two plunging ends of the anticline and differ from that of the more common deep-fault circulation controlled by faults or by faults and anticlines. Incongruent dissolution of the gypsum or anhydrite of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang and Middle Triassic Leikoupo Groups is affected by the anticline structures and results in hot water of SO4–Ca type. Meteoric water infiltrates through the karst channels and fissures at the outcropping area of carbonates to feed the groundwater. Part of the groundwater flows to depth and circulate along the two flanks of the anticline after heated. It issues in the form of hot springs or wells in the plunging ends of the anticline. Another part of the groundwater undergoing a shallow circulation forms the normal temperature spring near the hot springs. This study of the anticline-controlled thermal groundwater is important for exploitation and utilization of geothermal energy (tourism) and provides a perspective for the anticline-controlled geothermal resources potential.
[en] An Act of Parliament to consolidate the laws relating to energy, to provide for National and County Government functions in relation to energy, to provide for the establishment, powers and functions of the energy sector entities; promotion of renewable energy; exploration, recovery and commercial utilization of geothermal energy; regulation of midstream and downstream petroleum and coal activities; regulation, production, supply and use of electricity and other energy forms; and for connected purposes. This Act may be cited as the Energy Act, 2019. The Cabinet Secretary shall in consultation with the relevant stakeholders develop and publish a national energy policy which shall be reviewed every five years. There is established the Nuclear Power and Energy Agency hereinafter referred to as the Agency. The Agency shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, in its corporate name, be capable of suing and being sued. The Agency shall be the nuclear energy programme implementing organization and promote the development of nuclear electricity generation in Kenya; and carry out research, development and dissemination activities in the energy and nuclear power sector.
[en] The results for 2018 presented in this report show that the expansion of renewable energies is making a significant contribution to achieving the climate protection targets in Germany. Overall, fossil energy sources are increasingly being replaced by renewable energies in all consumption sectors, thus permanently avoiding greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions. Furthermore, the results show that a differentiated consideration of different technologies and sectors is useful and necessary, e.g. when it comes to deriving targeted measures for climate protection and air pollution control, since the specific abatement factors for the greenhouse gases and air pollutants investigated differ considerably in some cases. As a result, the net emissions balance of renewable energy, taking into account upstream chains, shows an avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions of about 187 million tons of CO-equivalents (CO-eq.) in 2018. The electricity sector accounted for 140 million t CO-eq, of which 124 million t are attributable to the amount of electricity eligible for EEG compensation. The heat sector avoided 35 million t and biogenic fuels avoided 8 million t CO-eq. In general, it can be stated that for electricity and heat, the result is significantly influenced by which fossil fuels are replaced by renewable energy sources. In the case of biofuels, the type and origin of the raw materials used are particularly decisive. Unless they are biogenic residues or waste, land-use changes caused by the agricultural cultivation of the energy crops must be taken into account.
[de]Die in diesem Bericht aufgeführten Ergebnisse für das Jahr 2018 zeigen, dass der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien wesentlich zur Erreichung der Klimaschutzziele in Deutschland beiträgt. Insgesamt werden in allen Verbrauchssektoren fossile Energieträger zunehmend durch erneuerbare Energien ersetzt und damit dauerhaft Treibhausgas- und Luftschadstoffemissionen vermieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass eine differenzierte Betrachtung verschiedener Technologien und Sektoren sinnvoll und notwendig ist, wenn es z.B. darum geht, gezielte Maßnahmen zum Klimaschutz und der Luftreinhaltung abzuleiten, da sich die spezifischen Vermeidungsfaktoren für die untersuchten Treibhausgase und Luftschadstoffe teilweise erheblich unterscheiden. Im Ergebnis weist die Netto-Emissionsbilanz der erneuerbaren Energien unter Berücksichtigung der Vorketten eine Vermeidung von Treibhausgasemissionen in Höhe von rund 187 Mio. t CO -Äquivalente (CO-Äq.) im Jahr 2018 aus. Auf den Stromsektor entfielen 140 Mio. t CO-Äq., davon sind 124 Mio. t der Strommenge mit EEG-Vergütungsanspruch zuzuordnen. Im Wärmesektor wurden 35 Mio. t und durch biogene Kraftstoffe 8 Mio. t CO-Äq. vermieden. Generell lässt sich feststellen, dass bei Strom und Wärme das Ergebnis maßgeblich dadurch beeinflusst wird, welche fossilen Brennstoffe durch erneuerbare Energieträger ersetzt werden. Bei den Biokraftstoffen sind insbesondere die Art und Herkunft der verwendeten Rohstoffe ausschlaggebend. Sofern es sich dabei nicht um biogene Reststoffe oder Abfälle handelt, sind Landnutzungsänderungen durch den landwirtschaftlichen Anbau der Energiepflanzen zu beachten.