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[en] Examples of partnerships from IRENA: - Global Geothermal Alliance; - SIDS Lighthouses Initiative; - Open Solar Contracts; - Long-Term Energy Scenarios for the Clean Energy Transition; - Coalition for Action.
[en] Geothermal energy is being widely exploited as a clean and renewable energy resource, and accurate assessments of potential resources can help us make reasonable planning and utilization of them. The volumetric method has been widely used in assessing geothermal resources owing to its simplicity and convenience. However, this method does not take into account the uncertainties of the input parameters involved, instead assigning a series of specific parameter values for each reservoir. Here, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to reduce these uncertainties while applying the volumetric method to estimate the geothermal resources of Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China. The basin contains two main types of thermal reservoirs: sandstone and carbonate. In applying Monte Carlo analysis to these reservoirs, the triangular and uniform distribution models for input parameters were used, and simulations were run with 1000–5000 iterations. Results indicate capacities of (1.182–2.283) × 1021 J (most likely 1.74 × 1021 J) and (1.299–2.546) × 1021 J (most likely 1.937 × 1021 J) for the Minghuazhen and Guantao sandstone reservoirs, respectively, and a capacity of (0.608–1.254) × 1021 J (most likely 8.450 × 1020 J) for the carbonate reservoir, finally, a range value (3.466–5.553) × 1021 J (most likely 4.400× 1021 J) for the whole Bohai Bay Basin.
[en] The objective of the work was to make a bibliographic review on the generation of electric energy and the environmental impacts caused, as well as its positive and negative points. A brief introduction to the theme was made and the Theoretical Framework was presented, where the forms of electric energy generation are discussed. Then, the final considerations and bibliographic references are presented.
[en] Hot springs occurring in two plunging ends of a very long and narrow anticline is unique. This study focuses on the hydrogeochemical characteristics and formation of the anticline-controlled thermal groundwater which may provide a perspective for geothermal resources potential. The low-to-middle temperature thermal groundwater of the Taozidang anticline in the Sichuan Basin, China, was examined to estimate the temperature of the deep reservoir and identify the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting the composition of hot water during circulation and evolution. The occurrences of thermal groundwater of these springs strongly controlled by anticline are in the two plunging ends of the anticline and differ from that of the more common deep-fault circulation controlled by faults or by faults and anticlines. Incongruent dissolution of the gypsum or anhydrite of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang and Middle Triassic Leikoupo Groups is affected by the anticline structures and results in hot water of SO4–Ca type. Meteoric water infiltrates through the karst channels and fissures at the outcropping area of carbonates to feed the groundwater. Part of the groundwater flows to depth and circulate along the two flanks of the anticline after heated. It issues in the form of hot springs or wells in the plunging ends of the anticline. Another part of the groundwater undergoing a shallow circulation forms the normal temperature spring near the hot springs. This study of the anticline-controlled thermal groundwater is important for exploitation and utilization of geothermal energy (tourism) and provides a perspective for the anticline-controlled geothermal resources potential.
[en] The results for 2018 presented in this report show that the expansion of renewable energies is making a significant contribution to achieving the climate protection targets in Germany. Overall, fossil energy sources are increasingly being replaced by renewable energies in all consumption sectors, thus permanently avoiding greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions. Furthermore, the results show that a differentiated consideration of different technologies and sectors is useful and necessary, e.g. when it comes to deriving targeted measures for climate protection and air pollution control, since the specific abatement factors for the greenhouse gases and air pollutants investigated differ considerably in some cases. As a result, the net emissions balance of renewable energy, taking into account upstream chains, shows an avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions of about 187 million tons of CO-equivalents (CO-eq.) in 2018. The electricity sector accounted for 140 million t CO-eq, of which 124 million t are attributable to the amount of electricity eligible for EEG compensation. The heat sector avoided 35 million t and biogenic fuels avoided 8 million t CO-eq. In general, it can be stated that for electricity and heat, the result is significantly influenced by which fossil fuels are replaced by renewable energy sources. In the case of biofuels, the type and origin of the raw materials used are particularly decisive. Unless they are biogenic residues or waste, land-use changes caused by the agricultural cultivation of the energy crops must be taken into account.
[de]Die in diesem Bericht aufgeführten Ergebnisse für das Jahr 2018 zeigen, dass der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien wesentlich zur Erreichung der Klimaschutzziele in Deutschland beiträgt. Insgesamt werden in allen Verbrauchssektoren fossile Energieträger zunehmend durch erneuerbare Energien ersetzt und damit dauerhaft Treibhausgas- und Luftschadstoffemissionen vermieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass eine differenzierte Betrachtung verschiedener Technologien und Sektoren sinnvoll und notwendig ist, wenn es z.B. darum geht, gezielte Maßnahmen zum Klimaschutz und der Luftreinhaltung abzuleiten, da sich die spezifischen Vermeidungsfaktoren für die untersuchten Treibhausgase und Luftschadstoffe teilweise erheblich unterscheiden. Im Ergebnis weist die Netto-Emissionsbilanz der erneuerbaren Energien unter Berücksichtigung der Vorketten eine Vermeidung von Treibhausgasemissionen in Höhe von rund 187 Mio. t CO -Äquivalente (CO-Äq.) im Jahr 2018 aus. Auf den Stromsektor entfielen 140 Mio. t CO-Äq., davon sind 124 Mio. t der Strommenge mit EEG-Vergütungsanspruch zuzuordnen. Im Wärmesektor wurden 35 Mio. t und durch biogene Kraftstoffe 8 Mio. t CO-Äq. vermieden. Generell lässt sich feststellen, dass bei Strom und Wärme das Ergebnis maßgeblich dadurch beeinflusst wird, welche fossilen Brennstoffe durch erneuerbare Energieträger ersetzt werden. Bei den Biokraftstoffen sind insbesondere die Art und Herkunft der verwendeten Rohstoffe ausschlaggebend. Sofern es sich dabei nicht um biogene Reststoffe oder Abfälle handelt, sind Landnutzungsänderungen durch den landwirtschaftlichen Anbau der Energiepflanzen zu beachten.
[en] Ethiopia’s vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is due to social, economic and environmental factors particularly population growth, and high level of reliance on rain-fed agriculture and environmental degradation. GHG emissions are increasing because of unsustainable use of natural resources and other antagonistic environmental effects. The Government initiated the Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) initiative to reduce such adverse effects of climate change. This initiative is a road map for achieving its ambition of reaching middle income status before 2025. Different priority project ideas were also identified through the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) process which addresses climate change adaptation needs of the country. The projects mainly focus in the areas of human and institutional capacity building, improving natural resource management. One of the priority and critical indicators of progress towards achieving the development goals is access to modern energy services. Though; the country is reach in renewable energy sources; it utilizes small portions of hydro, wind solar, wind and geothermal energies. Hence; the Government is planning to embark nuclear power as an alternative option to enhance the energy mix. In this regard it has taken the first step and signed an agreement with Russia setting out a three-year plan to lay the ground for the construction of a center for nuclear science and technology and a nuclear power plant.
[en] After some brief recalls of definitions (surface and deep geothermal energy), indications of some operational characteristics (high and low energy geothermal, heat pumps), indications of the various fields of application of these different approaches and techniques, indications of some key data (turnover, production, potential), this publication proposes an overview of the various assets of this sector: a local, available, performing, and clean energy, a structured sector. It outlines the essential role of geothermal energy in reaching the objectives of the law on energy transition, but also that the development rate is still insufficient to reach the objectives defined for 2023. Then, measures and actions are proposed to free the whole potential of the geothermal energy sectors.
[en] Hydrogeological and thermogeological properties of the shallow subsurface in the Dinaric karst area of Croatia were investigated in the context of its utilization for ground- and water-source heat pumps (GSHPs and WSHPs). The research encompassed four 100 m deep boreholes with GSHP installations in both coastal and inland Dinaric karst (different limestones and evaporitic rocks at one location), and a set of six exploratory boreholes, abstraction and reinjection wells for WSHP heating and cooling using seawater on the coast (fractured and karstified limestones). It was determined that rock thermal conductivities are favourable for GSHP utilization, but dependent on the wider rock mass characteristics which are hard to predict (size of karst voids and their saturation status). In addition, wells with high enough yield and stabile seawater or groundwater temperatures for WSHP utilization can be designed in appropriate structural settings (tensional fractures and fracture set intersections). Advantages and disadvantages of the utilized methodology have been pointed out, as well as methods which should prove useful in the future, especially if larger systems are planned. Hydrogeological, geotechnical, and thermal risks expected during the drilling, installation, and operational phases have also been identified. Presented case studies have given the insight into heat pump installation options and conditions in Croatian part of the Dinarides, but can be useful to other researchers and engineers both in the Dinarides and in similar karst regions.
[en] This guide presents the vision of the professionals of the AFPG (the French professional association of geothermal energy) for a good design of a geothermal system which will meet thermal and air-conditioning needs at the scale of one or several buildings, with a multiple choice of solutions for geothermal captures in the case of several buildings. It aims at presenting the whole set of elements to be known before starting a project of development or realisation of a proximity geothermal operation (or surface geothermal operation) implementing heat pumps coupled with a capture system. After a definition of surface geothermal energy, the guide presents its different devices (capture devices, production devices, control and monitoring device). It describes the situation of geothermal energy within the building market. Then, it describes the organisation, planning and interventions of a geothermal operation. The situation of the sector is then described (regulation reform, small geothermal, regulative approaches, required expertise, certifications)
[en] This publication aims at proposing a detailed analysis of costs of four surface geothermal technologies: vertical geothermal probes, geothermal energy on aquifer, horizontal sensors, and geothermal baskets. It first presents the adopted methodology, some general hypotheses (studied examples, heat pumps, comparative solutions for heating, energy costs, hypotheses for cooling, aids and loans), and the four technologies with their specific hypotheses. Results are presented for the different building sectors: individual housing, collective housing, and office building