Results 1 - 10 of 16436
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[en] The typical voltage comparator circuits are considered. Shown that the use of series- parallel connection of cascades improves the accuracy, speed and hardness to single event transient effects. (paper)
[en] The present work shows how data obtained in a depth-sensing indentation test using a Knoop indenter may be analyzed to provide elastic modulus and hardness of the specimen material. The method takes into account the elastic recovery along the direction of the short axis of the residual impression as the indenter is removed. If elastic recovery is not accounted for, the elastic modulus and hardness are overestimated by an amount that depends on the ratio of E/H of the specimen material. The new method of analysis expresses the elastic recovery of the short diagonal of the residual impression into an equivalent face angle for one side of the Knoop indenter. Conventional methods of analysis using this corrected angle provide results for modulus and hardness that are consistent with those obtained with other types of indenters
[en] To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time
[en] The authors develop the methods of hard-facing of mining-metallurgic equipment parts with heat-resisting high-hardness steels on the base of plasma-jet hard-facing in the shielding-alloying nitrogen atmosphere. (paper)
[en] Hot stamping of quenchenable ultra high strength steels currently represents a promising forming technology for the manufacturing of safety and crash relevant parts. For some applications, such as B-pillars and other structural components that may undergo impact loading, it may be desirable to create regions of the part with tailored mechanical properties. In the paper, a laboratory-scale hot stamped U-channel was manufactured by using a segmented die, which was heated by cartridge heaters and cooled by water channels independently. Local hardness values as low as 289 HV can be achieved using a heated die temperature of 400°C while maintaining a hardness level of 490 HV in the fully cooled region. If the die temperature was increased to 450°C, the Vickers hardness of elements in the heated region was 227 HV, with a reduction in hardness of more than 50%. Optical microscopy was used to verify the microstructure of the as-quenched phases with respect to the heated die temperatures. The FE model of the lab-scale process was developed to capture the overall hardness trends that were observed in the experiments
[en] The variation of hardness of rhombohedral single crystals of calcite with orientation of longer diagonal of Knoop indenter with respect to direction  on a cleavage plane (100) is studied. The Knoop hardness number H which has a constant value in the range of high loads (40-80 g) varies with orientation A and quenching temperature. By following phenomenological approach, an empirical relation (√HA=mA+C is developed from these studies. The effects of crystal anisotropy and thermal treatment of specimens after indentation are also discussed. (orig.)
[en] During the first 7 yr of the INTEGRAL mission (2003-2009), Cyg X-1 has essentially been detected in its hard state (HS), with some incursions in intermediate HSs. This long, spectrally stable period allowed in particular the measurement of the polarization of the high-energy component that has long been observed above 200 keV in this peculiar object. This result strongly suggests that here we see the contribution of the jet, known to emit a strong synchrotron radio emission. In 2010 June, Cyg X-1 underwent a completed transition toward a soft state (SS). It gave us the unique opportunity to study in detail the corona emission in this spectral state, and to investigate in particular the behavior of the jet contribution. Indeed, during the SS, the hard X-ray emission decreases drastically, with its maximum energy shifted toward lower energy and its flux divided by a factor of ∼5-10. Interestingly, the radio emission follows a similar drop, supporting the correlation between the jet emission and the hard component, even though the flux is too low to quantify the polarization characteristics.
[en] Highlights: • New application of LIBS in industry. • Hardness of metallic alloys estimation using LIBS calibration curves. • Linear correlation between the plasma temperature and the hardness of metallic alloys. • The shock wave is fast when the material is hard. - Abstract: Surface hardness is a very important characteristic of metals. Its monitoring plays a key role in industry. In the present paper, using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fe–V18%–C1% alloys with different heat treatments have been used for making the correlation between surface hardness and laser-induced plasma temperatures. All investigated samples were characterized by the same ferrite phase with different Vickers surface hardnesses. The differences in hardness values were attributed to the crystallite size changes. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Vickers surface hardness and the laser induced plasma temperature. For comparison the relation between surface hardness and the ratio of the vanadium ionic to atomic spectral lines intensities (VII/VI) provided good linear results too. However, adopting the proposed approach of using the plasma temperature, instead, is more reliable in view of the difficulties that could be encountered in choosing the proper ionic and atomic spectral lines. To validate this approach we have investigated the shock wave speed induced by laser interaction with the used samples. It was found that harder is the material faster is the shock wave. The determination of the surface hardness via measuring Te shows the feasibility of using LIBS as an easy and reliable method for in situ industrial application for production control
[en] Nano-polycrystalline boron nitride (BN) is expected to replace diamond as a superhard and superstiff material. Although its hardening was reported, its elasticity remains unclear and the as-measured hardness could be significantly different from the true value due to the elastic recovery. In this study, we measured the longitudinal-wave elastic constant of nano-polycrystalline BNs using picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy and confirmed the elastic softening for small-grain BNs. We also measured Vickers and Knoop hardness for the same specimens and clarified the relationship between hardness and stiffness. The Vickers hardness significantly increased as the grain size decreased, while the Knoop hardness remained nearly unchanged. We attribute the apparent increase in Vickers hardness to the elastic recovery and propose a model to support this insight.
[en] Ion implantation causes changes in mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness on the ion-implanted surface. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of substrate temperature during ion implantation on the hardness and fracture toughness of an ion-implanted silicon wafer. A silicon (1 0 0) wafer was implanted by 3 MeV ions of Au and Si at different substrate temperature of 100, 200 and 300 K, respectively. After ion implantation, Vickers indentation experiments were carried out on the ion-implanted surface of the silicon wafer at room temperature. The results of the Vickers indentation tests show a significant decrease of hardness and an increase of fracture toughness of the ion-implanted silicon with decreasing the substrate temperature during ion implantation. It was found that the lower the substrate temperature during implantation, the greater the effectiveness of ion implantation on the changes in mechanical properties of the ion-implanted silicon