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[en] The invention is applied to a tritium extraction plant of for extraction of a hydrogen isotope for instance in a nuclear reactor on in reprocessing effluents. Heat extracted from vapors during cooling at the outlet of each isotopic exchange step is used for liquid vaporization and gas preheating at each inlet of isotopic exchange step
[fr]L'intervention s'applique a une installation d'extraction et/ou de production de tritium ainsi qu'a l'extraction d'un isotope de l'hydrogene. Ce procede est caracterise en ce qu'on recupere la chaleur extraite des phases vapeur et gazeuse lors du refroidissement a la sortie de chaque etage d'echange isotopique et en ce qu'on utilise la chaleur ainsi recuperee pour contribuer a la vaporisation du liquide et au prechauffage du gaz a l'entree d'un etage d'echange isotopique
[en] For three sites located in Burundi, Madagascar and Rwanda which have been selected after a previous study, this document reports a feasibility study and the definition of the characteristics of micro geothermal plants which could be installed there. These plants convert thermodynamic energy into mechanical and electric energy, with a recoverable power of 15 kWe. After a description of the operation of such micro-plants (principle, hot water and cold water circuits, exchangers, engine, freon circuit, electric power production, regulation and automatism), and a description of the selected sites (location, physical and chemical characteristics), a pre-sizing is reported (fluid selection, needed water flow rates, components). The report discusses the use of the produced electric power, and reports an assessment of construction costs (site development, plant construction and installation), discusses the exploitation and installation of the plant. Results are globally discussed in terms of thermal and cold water flow rates, of possible electric power, and of chemistry of underground waters. If the operation appears to be technically feasible, the cost appears to be high due to the characteristics of the thermal water temperature
[en] These specifications aim at describing the typical process and content of an assessment study of unavoidable heat potentials which are available within a specific territory, thus allowing deeper and more targeted studies to be performed for the implementation of unavoidable heat recovery projects. This concerns any effluent type, whatever its type (gas, liquid) and origin (industry, waste incineration plants, energetic valorisation units, data-centres, and so on) are. Four main phases are identified and discussed: inventory of unavoidable heat sources, assessment of the local valorisation potential, proposition of a strategy of actions, and study communication.
[en] In France, the situation of cogeneration and heat networks is very different from other european countries, as the electricity supply is independent of the heating supply. 250MW of cogenerated power is currently available from the french heat network. It could be increased to 800MW, if local authorities and companies were to accept the opportunities extended to them, such as the renovation of '50 and '60 boiler plants and the construction and renovation of domestic waste incineration plants. Other than steam turbine systems should be also used: motors and gas turbines
[en] A metallic-sodium LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) can control fuel temperature after a full power SCRAM using natural convection. A 3 percent nominal DRAC (Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling) does this without moving parts. DRAC is promoted from tertiary to primary decay heat removal, resulting in what is referred to as a Power DRAC. Power DRAC operates continuously before and after SCRAM, rejecting 3 per cent pile power. Power DRAC operability is validated by having it reject 75 MWt from a 2500 MWt pile at all times. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is not required to be operable for primary, secondary, or tertiary core over-temperature protection. Original DRAC concept (venturi DRAC) was a 1 per cent nominal tertiary decay heat removal system. Tertiary DRAC patent has expired. Power DRAC rejects 75 MWt through its own secondary sodium heat transfer loop to power a 25 MWe air Brayton cycle. Power DRAC eliminates requiring steam plant operability for decay heat removal. Intermediate sodium heat transfer system and steam plant can be optimized for maximum thermal efficiency. 2.5 GWt pile makes 1.0 GWe net power. Power DRAC maintains pile inlet and outlet temperatures while going from power to post-SCRAM conditions. Steam pressure is maintained post-SCRAM to mitigate SCRAM thermal transient. Not requiring steam plant operability for decay heat removal eases licensing and allows early LMFBR deployment. Each GWe atomic power delays CO2 doubling one week. (author)
[en] The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.)
[fr]Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)
[en] Methodology of diagnosis for energy audit in existing industrial plants by energy fluxes analysis which gives two types of indications: one with no or small investments, and the other one with important investments. This diagnosis is applied to some processes: liquid solid separation, solution concentration, heat exchangers, buildings (heating, cooling, ventilation, air conditioning). (A.B.). 13 figs. 1 tab
[en] A global thermal approach to sprinkled greenhouse cultivation was developed, which led to monographs which can be used for preliminary studies. As a second step, the thermal behaviour of this particular greenhouse was used to define the relevant parameters for the optimisation of the procedure and the ideal characteristics of the material to be used for the shelter. At the same time, a physical model of a buried tubular heat exchanger was built, together with a flexible and thoroughly tested computer program. An example of its use to help determine the dimensions for ground heating systems is presented. The various waste heat recovery procedures described have been studied, leading to an internal economic study including a comparison with other means of greenhouse heating
[fr]Une approche thermique globale de la serre a ruissellement a ete realisee, aboutissant a la construction d'abaques representatifs et utilisables pour toute etude previsionnelle. Dans un second temps, une modelisation du comportement energetique de cette serre a permis de definir les elements d'optimisation du procede et les caracteristiques ideales des materiaux de couverture de l'abri. Parallelement, un modele physique descriptif d'un echangeur tubulaire enterre a ete developpe, concretise en un programme informatique souple et teste. Un exemple d'application est donne, concernant le dimensionnement des systemes de rechauffage du sol. L'ensemble des procedes de valorisation des rejets thermiques decrits a alors ete repris et a donne lieu a une etude economique interne et comparative avec les autres modes de chauffage des serres
[en] After having indicated how the ADEME, through its aid-to-decision arrangement, financially supports studies with a quality and efficiency objective for the recipient, this document indicates the content and modalities of performance and restitution of studies performed by an intervener external to the recipient of the ADEME's support. Thus, it first indicates the objectives of the specification note and the reasons for a feasibility study in the case of a project of recovery of unavoidable heat for internal/external valorisation. Then, it presents the chronology and details the different phases of the project: phase 1 (situational analysis and scope of the project, technical-economic proposition), phase 2 (additional analysis of the whole site with data recovery, additional measures, energy assessment and deepened analysis, report), phase 3 (feasibility study with collection and consolidation of data describing existing installations, choice and sizing of installations of heat recovery and valorization, energy and environmental assessment, economic and legal arrangement, deliverables). Modalities of execution are then addressed: steering committee, meetings, documents, ownership of results, study provider, delay, mission cost, restitution and confidentiality, control. Appendices address deepened analysis methods, and aspects specific to waste incineration units.