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[en] This article discusses the development of the use of solar collectors over their past 30 years of history and describes today's state-of-the-art for solar installations that are used for hot water preparation and space heating. Advances made in storage technology, in the dimensioning of installations and in the operation of the systems are discussed in detail. The importance of low-flow operation for hot water installations is emphasised. Also, the integration of solar and conventional heating systems is looked at and questions regarding further factors such as those encountered in low-energy-consumption buildings are discussed. Future developments in the product and market areas are looked at, including new forms of storage as well as solar cooling and air-conditioning
[en] A comparison is made between thermal solar energy systems of different size for five different applications in the three main climatic zones in Switzerland. Conventional ways of energy conservation are also included in the comparison. A cost/benefit ratio is calculated for each system. The investment is used as a cost indicator whereas the useful solar heat or the conventional energy saving is chosen as benefit. It is shown that the most systems sold today in Switzerland - combined hot water and space heating systems for single family houses - have the poorest cost/benefit ratio among all systems considered in the analysis. Four applications with more favourable cost/benefit ratio are identified. Large systems have generally a better cost/benefit ratio than smaller ones, although the total investment is higher. Photovoltaics is even less favourable than all thermal systems considered. The large scale penetration of technologies with good cost/benefit ratio lies in the public interest. Supporting activities should consider the priority set by the cost/benefit ratio. (author) 1 fig., 14 refs
[en] This short article presents a summary of the results of representative market research carried out on which forms of energy are the most favoured in Switzerland. Solar energy is the form of energy at the top of the list of the most desired forms of energy for providing hot water. Natural gas is the energy carrier most favoured for space-heating, having for the first time overtaken solar energy in this sector. The article also quotes further findings of the survey, including the roles played by air pollution and other factors that influence energy desires. Also, the survey studied the sources used by the Swiss to obtain information on the subject of energy supply when building, buying or refurbishing their homes. The results are presented in the form of diagrams
[en] This article presents the results of interviews carried out with eight leading heating experts on current developments in the heating business in Switzerland. The author comments on how the installers of heating systems are profiting from the good situation to be found in the building industry in general. Apart from refurbishment projects, the increasing interest in renewable forms of energy is commented on. New developments are covered, as are the interviewee's opinions on further market developments. Also the effects on market structure caused by increasing prices for heating oil are discussed. Finally the interviewee's opinions on future technological developments are presented
[en] In the late 1970-Years, Tracto-Technik developed a very effective radial-shaped percussion system for a geothermal heating, the ECOtherm-System, which was very well accepted by customers. Nowadays, a radial-shaped drilling system, operating some decameters below the surface, was developed by Tracto-Technik, which offers the chance of a very effective drilling for the use of geothermal energy. The main advantage of this development is the reduction of drilling costs by new constructions and new handling possibilities. Drilling processes like the rod connecting or the drill-hole enlargement were solved in other ways as usual, by very time-shortening and effective ways, which are presented in the paper. The new TT-Geothermal radial drilling methods need only a very small but highly effective drilling unit, which reduces the operational drilling cost in a enormous way. All operational drilling steps are reduced to less than a half time as usual. By these GRD-methods, the use of surface-close geothermal energy is simplified and less expansive. (authors)
[en] The article deals with energy demand for the production of solar energy devices, swimming pools and useful water warming including the related emissions of air pollutants and CO2. Those emissions from the conventional oil and gas burning not produced due to solar energy will also be taken in the balance. Views of this kind, build the foundations for the so called 'emission balance'. The results show that solar energy will help to avoid emission in summary, but also initiate more emission by certain pollutants. (author)
[en] Automatic translation: In this report, the results of fission product release calculations for the isotopes Cs-137 and Ag-109m, Ag-110m are presented in more detail Nuclear process heating system AVR II were carried out. The concept of Annex AVR II is documented in / 1 / together with important detailed results of the fission product releases. The particle, fuel element and Diffusion data are taken from / 2 /, / 3 / and in the Tables 1 and 2 listed. The same goes for the data too Particle failure and contamination are also shown in the table 1 are listed.
[de]In diesem Bericht werden Ergebnisse von Spaltproduktfreisetzungsrechnungen für die Isotope Cs-137 und Ag-109m, Ag-110m ausführlicher dargestellt, die im Rahmen der Kernauslegung für die Nukleare Prozeßwärmeanlage AVR II durchgeführt wurden. Das Konzept der Anlage AVR II ist in /1/ dokumentiert zusammen mit wichtigen Detailergebnissen der Spaltproduktfreisetzungen. Die zu den Berechnungen notwendigen Partikel-, Brennelementund Diffusionsdaten sind aus /2/, /3/ entnommen und in den Tabellen 1 und 2 aufgeführt. Das gleiche gilt für die Daten zu Partikelversagen und Kontamination, die ebenfalls in der Tabelle 1 aufgeführt sind.
[en] Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet
[de]14 Sonnenergiefachleute trafen sich auf Einladung der Schweizerischen Vereinigung fuer Sonnenenergie (SSES), die unter der Leitung einer Moderatorin ueber das Thema 'Qualitaetssicherung von Solaranlagen fuer Konsumenten' nachdenken wollten. Im Hinblick auf die Einfuehrung einer Energieabgabe mit der entsprechenden raschen Entwicklung des Solaranlagenmarktes wurde die Schaffung einer neutralen Ombudsstelle diskutiert, an welche sich Kunden wenden koennen, wenn sie mit ihrer Anlage nicht zufrieden sind. Denn der Markt kann sich nur entwickeln, wenn die Qualitaet stimmt. Das noetige Know-How ist zwar in seit einigen Jahren verfuegbaren Nachschlagewerken gut dargestellt, jedoch (noch) nicht von allen Fachkraeften angewendet
[en] Programs for the simulation of solar plants must be suitable for different targets. They are required for the design phase, marketing and sales, energy consultancy, research and development and for checking the income. In this article, five different simulation programmes are introduced and compared. Compared with 1991, the situation has changed appreciably. Design and layout are increasingly being required for larger plants. They are more frequently concerned with seasonal use, special profiles and plant configurations, which differ from the conventional one-store plant. (BWI)
[de]Programme zur Simulation von Solaranlagen muessen unterschiedlichen Zielen genuegen. Sie sind gefragt fuer die Planungsphase, Marketing und Vertrieb, Energieberatung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Ertragskontrolle. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden fuenf unterschiedliche Simulationsprogramme vorgestellt und verglichen. Im Vergleich zu 1991 hat sich die Situation deutlich geaendert. Planung und Auslegung wird zunehmend fuer groessere Anlagen gefragt. Dabei geht es immer haeufiger um saisonale Nutzung, spezielle Zapfprofile und Anlagenkonfigurationen, die von der klassischen Ein-Speicher-Anlage abweichen. (BWI)
[en] This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the potentials and restraints with respect to the use of solar energy in the new construction and refurbishment of residential buildings in Switzerland. The method used is based on a 'learning-curve' technique. The first part of the report deals with the development of prices for solar-collector installations from 1990 until now. The second part deals with today's costs and future developments up to the year 2030. A reference building is used as the basis for the comparison of eight system variants. A further eight variants combine solar technology with traditional heating installations such as oil, gas and wood boilers and heat-pumps. Scenarios for the market situation for solar energy in 2030 are discussed