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[en] Area Electricity Boards in the United Kingdom are required to contract for a specified amount of non-fossil fuel electricity. This is known as the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The Boards are able to recoup the additional costs of such purchases by charging the difference to their customers on a pro rata basis. Although the tax is raised for all non-fossil fuel sources, which includes most renewable energy schemes the majority of it will be used to support nuclear power. Initially the total non-nuclear component is expected to be 300 MW, rising to 800 MW by 1998 as more renewables come on stream. This compares to an initial total for nuclear power of 8,548 MW, decreasing to 7714 MW in 1998 as older capacity gets taken off. This clearly shows that the tax is nuclear based and justifies the epithet the Nuclear Tax. Friends of the Earth is launching a campaign to ensure that everyone who pays the Nuclear Tax is aware how much it is, and what it is going to support, and to show why this money is being wasted, when it should be directed to the fuller support of renewables or to the promotion of energy efficiency and energy conservation. (author)
[en] Obrigheim, Germany's veteran Pressurized Water Reactor, recently returned to service after an extended shut down -imposed following the unearthing of apparent anomalies in its original operating licence in 1968. The background of the case and the lawsuit brought by a local group opposing plant extension are described. (author)
[en] Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.
[en] Public attitudes towards environmental issues depends on the information that the public receive and the ability of the public to distinguish between fact and fiction. It is the responsibility of the media and environmental lobbies to put across the facts in a responsible and accurate way. Examples are given of how environmental issues, such as acid rain, radioactive effluents etc., are misrepresented by the media and of undesirable tactics used by environmental lobbies. (UK)
[en] In this study, we generalized quantum digital signature scheme for three-partied to the multi-partied. Also we analyzed this scheme for repudiation, forgery and colluding adversaries. (paper)
[en] Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.
[en] This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.
[en] Interviews with group objectors at the Hinkley 'C' Inquiry in the UK into the planning application for the construction of a pressurized water reactor, sought to ascertain both the level of resources that they were devoting to the Inquiry, and the objectives and expectations of achieving them that the groups held. It is concluded that: although groups claimed to be pursuing strategies that were external to the Inquiry process, the nature of the Inquiry limited the success of this approach; the representatives of groups interviewed displayed ambivalence, simultaneously believing participation was worthwhile and that the Inquiry was a sham; groups' most successful tactic was that of delay through mass objection and participation. The Public Inquiry system may present a formidable obstacle to the implementation of any future UK nuclear power programme. (author)
[en] In a recent report on the economics of nuclear power produced for Greenpeace, Alex Henney follows the by now conventional paths of retrospective analysis and parameter adjustment, calculated to cause the maximum discomfiture to all individuals and organisations involved with energy policy in the UK over the past forty years. This article examines some of Henney's hidden assumptions and examines how the prevailing circumstances actually led to the decisions that were taken. (author)
[en] Greenpeace's use of present scientific evidence for global warming and the possible effects of burning fossil fuels, etc is dangerously emotional, an irresponsible extrapolation to a 'doomsday' scenario, recently supported by a colourful 'Armageddon' video designed to grossly mislead the public. However, the main threat is the risk of a similar misleading of policy makers and industry, claims the author in response to the extracts from Greenpeace speeches printed in the July issue of Petroleum Review. (author)