Results 1 - 10 of 222
Results 1 - 10 of 222. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.
[en] In this study, we generalized quantum digital signature scheme for three-partied to the multi-partied. Also we analyzed this scheme for repudiation, forgery and colluding adversaries. (paper)
[en] Nuclear power is an efficient tool to fight climate warming and to improve living standards for billions of people. The Harmony program was launched by the WNA (World Nuclear Association) a few years ago to propose an international consensus for a nuclear power share in electricity generation of 25% by 2050. This aim may look ambitious, it represents a capacity increase of 1000 GWe but 30 years ago the nuclear industry succeeded in building 31 GW per year without benefiting from the modern technologies and the supply chain of today. The harmony program acts following 3 axis. First nuclear energy must be considered as a carbon-free energy source like others, its essential role in the energy mix must be acknowledged and it must be taken into account in the optimization of the energy mix. Secondly, it is important to develop a standardisation of nuclear regulations among countries in order to ease the implementation of new plants. Thirdly, a new approach based on the well-being of population that assesses the different sources of energy according to their real benefits for health, safety and the environment, must be promoted. (A.C.)
[en] This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.
[en] In this article, we propose quantum position verification (QPV) schemes where all the channels are untrusted except the position of the prover and distant reference stations of verifiers. We review and analyze the existing QPV schemes containing some pre-shared data between the prover and verifiers. Most of these schemes are based on non-cryptographic assumptions, i.e. quantum/classical channels between the verifiers are secure. It seems impractical in an environment fully controlled by adversaries and would lead to security compromise in practical implementations. However, our proposed formula for QPV is more robust, secure and according to the standard assumptions of cryptography. Furthermore, once the position of the prover is verified, our schemes establish secret keys in parallel and can be used for authentication and secret communication between the prover and verifiers. (paper)
[en] The recent discovery of a non-zero value of the mixing angle θ13 has ruled out tri-bimaximal mixing as the correct lepton mixing pattern generated by some discrete flavor symmetry (barring large next-to-leading order corrections in concrete models). In this work we assume that neutrinos are Majorana particles and perform a general scan of all finite discrete groups with order less than 1536 to obtain their predictions for lepton mixing angles. To our surprise, the scan of over one million groups only yields 3 interesting groups that give lepton mixing patterns which lie within 3-sigma of the current best global fit values. A systematic way to categorize such groups and the implications for flavor symmetry are discussed
[en] Highlights: • 23 Pd- and Pt-based antiperovskite-type ternary carbides are probed from first principles. • Structural, elastic, electronic properties and inter-atomic bonding are evaluated. • A rich variety of mechanical and electronic properties was predicted. -- Abstract: By means of first-principles calculations, the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of a broad series of proposed Pd- and Pt-based antiperovskite-type ternary carbides AC(Pd,Pt)3, where A are Zn, Ca, Al, Ga, In, Ge, Hg, Sn, Cd, Pb, Ag, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb, Mo, and Ta, have been studied, and their stability, elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young’s moduli, compressibility, Pugh’s indicator, Poisson’s ratio, indexes of elastic anisotropy, as well as electronic properties have been evaluated. We found that these materials should demonstrate a rich variety of mechanical and electronic properties depending on the type of A sublattices, which can include (unlike the majority of known 3d-metal-based antiperovskites) both sp elements and d atoms. We believe that the presented results will be useful for future synthesis of these phases, as well as for expanding our knowledge of this interesting group of antiperovskite-type materials
[en] We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it
[en] There is a global expectation about the peace process between the National Government and the FARC-EP and ELN guerrillas in Colombia, and also about the adoption of the possible agreements. However, as argued in this article, the fact that the emergence of a phase of post-conflict and/or post-agreements is mentioned from the theoretical and conceptual point of view does not mean that the internal conflicts vanish, but instead, they are transformed or can even give rise to new conflicts. A contribution in this sense is to conclude that the armed development is only a manifestation or expression of the conflict that turns out to be much more complex, due to its multiple aspects and factors that produce it. This trend is clear with respect to environmental matters: since the announced post-conflict phase in Colombia in the last years the environmental conflicts have intensified or have led to situations that enable the emergence of new conflicts. For this reason, the challenge of environmental conflicts is to propose a series of reflections for the discussion and construction of broad and lasting peace scenarios. In this sense, peace is not the absence of conflicts, but a situation in which they can be solved without resorting to violence and guaranteeing environmental rights. The proposal is finding a concerted and participatory solution among the different social sectors that acknowledges and establishes the aspects for overcoming environmental injustices, insisting that the latter constitute a condition that generates conflict due to the distribution of the environmental goods and burdens, which are manifested in inequalities and inequities between human beings and human beings and nature. Therefore, it will be essential to focus the efforts so that environmental rights are respected by guaranteeing no detriments, pollution or impacts, and assuring the emergence of affirmative actions, demands and struggles that allow the realization of a redistributive justice, the resolution of inequality and poverty, and the respect and limits for the conservation and sustainability of environmental and natural goods
[en] This study analyzes the pattern in the leadership groups' perception of nuclear power through quantitative and qualitative investigations involving five steps: (1) analysis of previous literature; (2) Surveys and interview questions; (3) expert consultation; (4) in depth interviews of leadership groups and surveys; (5) external evaluation. Given the developing conflicts and misunderstanding between interest groups of certain policies that are apparent in all areas including nuclear power in the current diversified society, the role of communication during policy making to maximize the understanding between the public and the government is being emphasized. At present, there are various social conflicts surrounding nuclear power, although numerous investigations on the public perception of nuclear power have been conducted, minimal efforts have been made to investigate the perception of nuclear power by social leadership groups, who are at the center of policy-making. Therefore, this paper analyzes of the pattern in the perception of nuclear power by the leadership groups in Korea, in order to establish the necessary foundation for the directions for communication policy.