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[en] Area Electricity Boards in the United Kingdom are required to contract for a specified amount of non-fossil fuel electricity. This is known as the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The Boards are able to recoup the additional costs of such purchases by charging the difference to their customers on a pro rata basis. Although the tax is raised for all non-fossil fuel sources, which includes most renewable energy schemes the majority of it will be used to support nuclear power. Initially the total non-nuclear component is expected to be 300 MW, rising to 800 MW by 1998 as more renewables come on stream. This compares to an initial total for nuclear power of 8,548 MW, decreasing to 7714 MW in 1998 as older capacity gets taken off. This clearly shows that the tax is nuclear based and justifies the epithet the Nuclear Tax. Friends of the Earth is launching a campaign to ensure that everyone who pays the Nuclear Tax is aware how much it is, and what it is going to support, and to show why this money is being wasted, when it should be directed to the fuller support of renewables or to the promotion of energy efficiency and energy conservation. (author)
[en] Obrigheim, Germany's veteran Pressurized Water Reactor, recently returned to service after an extended shut down -imposed following the unearthing of apparent anomalies in its original operating licence in 1968. The background of the case and the lawsuit brought by a local group opposing plant extension are described. (author)
[en] Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.
[en] Public attitudes towards environmental issues depends on the information that the public receive and the ability of the public to distinguish between fact and fiction. It is the responsibility of the media and environmental lobbies to put across the facts in a responsible and accurate way. Examples are given of how environmental issues, such as acid rain, radioactive effluents etc., are misrepresented by the media and of undesirable tactics used by environmental lobbies. (UK)
[en] In this study, we generalized quantum digital signature scheme for three-partied to the multi-partied. Also we analyzed this scheme for repudiation, forgery and colluding adversaries. (paper)
[en] The growing numbers of contenders in the international nuclear arms race are seen to be an enabling factor in favor of terrorist access to nuclear weapons. This article gives an overview of studies and literature which postulate a nuclear terrorist incident. Louis Rene Beres, a political scientist, lists some factors which give credence to the hypotheses: easy access to nuclear materials, ready availability of weapons resources, terrorist willingness for self-sacrifice, cooperation among terrorist groups, and a general international tolerance of terrorism. Nearly all experts and commentators agree that nuclear reactors constitute the prime terrorist targets of the future. 90 references
[en] Nuclear power is an efficient tool to fight climate warming and to improve living standards for billions of people. The Harmony program was launched by the WNA (World Nuclear Association) a few years ago to propose an international consensus for a nuclear power share in electricity generation of 25% by 2050. This aim may look ambitious, it represents a capacity increase of 1000 GWe but 30 years ago the nuclear industry succeeded in building 31 GW per year without benefiting from the modern technologies and the supply chain of today. The harmony program acts following 3 axis. First nuclear energy must be considered as a carbon-free energy source like others, its essential role in the energy mix must be acknowledged and it must be taken into account in the optimization of the energy mix. Secondly, it is important to develop a standardisation of nuclear regulations among countries in order to ease the implementation of new plants. Thirdly, a new approach based on the well-being of population that assesses the different sources of energy according to their real benefits for health, safety and the environment, must be promoted. (A.C.)
[en] Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.
[en] This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.
[en] In this article, we propose quantum position verification (QPV) schemes where all the channels are untrusted except the position of the prover and distant reference stations of verifiers. We review and analyze the existing QPV schemes containing some pre-shared data between the prover and verifiers. Most of these schemes are based on non-cryptographic assumptions, i.e. quantum/classical channels between the verifiers are secure. It seems impractical in an environment fully controlled by adversaries and would lead to security compromise in practical implementations. However, our proposed formula for QPV is more robust, secure and according to the standard assumptions of cryptography. Furthermore, once the position of the prover is verified, our schemes establish secret keys in parallel and can be used for authentication and secret communication between the prover and verifiers. (paper)