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[en] The Mechanical Turk was an 18th century hoax, which was advertised as an autonomous chessplaying machine. In fact, it was controlled by a human who sat crouched within the device, manipulating it and making its decisions. Fast-forwarding to the 21st century, Amazon now offers a service called the Amazon Mechanical Turk, which enables “individuals and businesses (known as Requesters) to coordinate the use of human intelligence to perform tasks that computers are currently unable to do” (source: Wikipedia). Despite advances in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, the existence of a service like the Amazon Mechanical Turk demonstrates that some seemingly-automatable tasks are still currently best performed by a human (or a team of humans), rather than by a computer. The processing and analysis of Additional Protocol declarations, in particular those dealing with Research & Development, is one of such tasks, and ISD is developing novel ways to efficiently and effectively human-analyse these declarations. (author)
[en] Sudan is party to Treaty on the Non –Proliferation (NPT) since 1968 and has signed the comprehensive safeguard agreement SCA since 1977(INFCIRC/245) and the small quantities protocol SQP (old text) since 2005. The Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Control Bill, 2015, which approved recently in last Jan 2017 are Addressed clearly Safeguards. some efforts were done regarding to safeguards issue in Sudan for example A technical committee which has been formed by the Secretary General of Sudanese Nuclear & Radiological Regulatory Authority (SNRRA) including many organization, had studied the relevant treaties and international conventions and provide a comprehensive technical report (included safeguards) to the main stakeholders in the same side A national workshop, organized in cooperation with international atomic energy agency (IAEA) on the safeguards agreement in Sudan, 17-18 April 2017), encouraged Sudan to conclude the AP and amendment text of SQP. According to the nuclear Act 2017 the Safeguards Department has many Responsibilities the one of this is establishing and Strengthening State Systems of Accounting and Control for Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in Sudan also Many efforts done by SNRRA regarding to that and followed the IAEA publication as essential guideline and some countries experiences to be as basic steps to establishing and strengthening system to effective control of nuclear materials and activities in Sudan but still have many challenges. (author)
[en] Twelve Non-Nuclear Weapon States of the European Union (EU) have delegated the implementation of provisions of the Additional Protocol (AP) to the European Commission of the EU through side letters (‘Side-Letter States’), whereas some other EU Member States, ‘non-Side-Letter States’, have opted for direct declaration to the IAEA of parts of the AP. A deep analysis of the workflow of AP declarations is a prerequisite to adapt the Protocol Reporter 3 (PR3) software to the needs of these States and thus to support the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) States in their reporting using the new PR3 format. Additionally, the proposed format of Digital Declaration Site Maps (DDSM) attached to declarations under the AP Article 2.a.(iii) is discussed in the paper. (author)
[en] This paper aims to incorporate rules of origin into international taxation into firms' global operations. The purposes of this research are to develop a new model for the global logistics network design of an assembly system with rules of origin and to analyze how the changes of international relationships will affect logistics network design and evaluation functions. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we develop a global logistics network design model prescribing allocating amounts for production, assembly, and distribution. A path-based programming model is presented that represents the complexities associated with international and interenterprise issues. The objective is to minimize total costs, which are costs of production, assembly, transportation, and customs duties. In addition to customs duties, rules of origin, which were, not addressed in previous studies, are considered. Several computational experiments with industrial examples are presented to validate the model. Findings: The results indicate that the tax planning and alignment with the FTA might have a significant impact on the decision-making in the global supply chain for multi-national operating companies. Therefore, the multi-national operating companies need to be aware of importance of what-if simulation before or after FTA changes. Originality/value: While designing global supply chain, the tax effects and use of free-trade agreements (FTAs), were generally omitted. In this paper, we proposed a global logistics network design model with rules of origin. We show the effectiveness and necessity to consider rules of origin. This model can be used in making an optimal global logistics network for global companies. The results of this model are used as a target for a real optimal logistics network. Companies can make a better logistics network by using this model.
[en] The Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015, (Act 895) established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) as the Competent Authority for Safeguards and Additional Protocol reporting and regulation in Ghana. A reporting regime has been established drawing experience from the previous regulatory system under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The regime addresses safeguards and Additional Protocol reporting needs of the NRA. A Draft Safeguards Regulation is currently under review, which was developed with assistance from the International Nuclear Safeguards Engagement Program (INSEP) and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and provides the framework for implementing the reporting regime. Inventory Change Reports, Material Balance Reports, Special Reports and Additional Protocol Reports are addressed in the Draft Safeguards Regulation. The use of the State Declaration Portal and Protocol Reporter 3 are discussed. The paper presents the current reporting regime on safeguards and the Additional Protocol in Ghana. (author)
[en] The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is the national governmental organization in charge of the regulation of nuclear activities in Argentina, and is independent of any entity dedicated to the use or the promotion of nuclear energy in any of its forms. ARN was created in 1997 by the National Nuclear Activity Act (Law No. 24.804), which established its mission and responsibilities. This autarchic entity within the jurisdiction of the Argentine Presidency has competence on radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection, safeguards and nuclear nonproliferation. As the authority responsible for safeguards implementation, the ARN attaches great importance to assuring efficient and effective safeguards through robust capabilities of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) and a strong connection with external relevant institutions. To fulfill its mission, ARN is committed to continuously develop its own human capacity and outreach to licensees and relevant stakeholders, assuring a clear understanding of safeguards obligations and responsibilities. From an international perspective, ARN maintains interactions with several organizations through mechanisms such as the Cooperation Protocol with the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; the Agreement with the United States Department of Energy concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards application; and the Argentine Support Programme to the International Atomic Energy Agency. These partnerships foster collaboration in safeguards implementation through tailored training and activities on safeguards approaches, measurement techniques, containment and surveillance, the conduct of domestic/regional inspections and the role of a SSAC in implementing international safeguards, among others. The paper focuses on ARN’s interfaces in safeguards capacity-building activities conducted during the past four years. It describes the experience gained through in-house training, facility operator engagement and collaborative actions within the above mentioned frameworks, while sharing the lessons learned. (authors)
[en] The State of Côte d’Ivoire has a comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) that entered into force on 8 September 1983. The protocol additional to the safeguards agreement (AP) entered into force on 5 May 2016. As a result, the following activities were carried out over three (3) years, from 2016 to 2018: - In accordance with paragraph 32 of the CSA, Côte d’Ivoire has submitted twelve (12) accounting reports on the nuclear material within its territory. These reports are of three (3) types: ICRs, PILs and MBRs. - Pursuant to articles 2 and 3 of the protocol additional to the safeguards agreement, Côte d’Ivoire provided information to the IAEA in an initial set of AP declarations; this consisted of eleven (11) declarations regarding the locations of specified sites (use of each building under article 2.a.(iii)). Seven (7) updates were submitted under article 2.a.(ix)(a) of Annex II of the AP regarding the export of non-nuclear equipment. - Regarding complementary accesses, pursuant to Article 4.a.(i), Agency inspectors conducted one mission to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a laboratory at the site. Effective administrative measures were implemented to facilitate IAEA inspection missions. - On 14 May 2018, the General Part of the Subsidiary Arrangements was re-submitted to the Authority for Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security (ARSN) for signature. - With the support of the US International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), a workshop was held in Côte d’Ivoire on the preparation of the initial set of AP declarations. The experience acquired by the State’s regulatory authority in the implementation of the CSA and the AP is useful for States in a situation similar to Côte d’Ivoire. (author)
[en] India, the second-most populous country of the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion has been registering accelerated agricultural and industrial growth for about a decade. This has posed a serious challenge of meeting the quantitative demand of secure and affordable energy. This vibrant development process is also resulting in a shift from the use of non-commercial energy sources to commercial energy sources, particularly electricity. The problem is all the more acute in the light of recent developments of global measures to cut emission and emphasis on producing electricity in environmentally benign means. In this context of India’s planned electricity generation, expansion of nuclear power capacity occupies a special standing towards energy independence of the country. It has also been established and appreciated in many countries of the world that nuclear power is the reliable, environmentally superior and economically viable source of energy. Accordingly, India is on the preferred path of generating nuclear power with the use of its indigenous atomic mineral resources. Some multiplying capacity generation is though expected through the import of fuel as a result of recently concluded India-specific international agreement on nuclear co-operation, the indigenous production of atomic fuel continues to expand with vigour. (author)
[en] Since 2003, Iran’s nuclear programme has not only been a subject of discussion internationally but also in Iran itself. This study examines the debate on this issue in Iran during the international negotiations in this respect from 2003 to 2015, and reveals the influences on Iran’s decisions with regard to its nuclear policy.
[en] The IAEA’s Dosimetry laboratory works as a central laboratory in the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network and provides calibrations, reference irradiations, comparison programmes and dosimetry audit services for the Member States, SSDLs and radiation therapy centres. To ensure that the calibration services provided by an SSDL Network member to endusers follow internationally accepted standards, the SSDL should participate in comparisons to demonstrate equivalence of measurements and calibrations, with the other laboratories worldwide. The IAEA provides comparison programmes for radiation therapy, radiation protection and diagnostic radiology. The comparison services are open for all SSDL Network members. By including in such comparisons laboratories that have taken part in other international comparisons, the IAEA provides a strong link to the Mutual Recognition Arrangements of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM MRA) and to the International System of Units (SI) also for its Member States that are not members of the Metre Convention. The comparison programme enables SSDL Network members to verify the consistency of their national standards and validate the calibration procedure applied at the SSDL. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. Therefore, historical summaries of all results are only presented anonymously. The comparison results can also be used to support the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) of the SSDL. Therefore, we asked the SSDLs which participated in a comparison in 2017 – 2018 if they wish to publish their results with the name of the laboratory. If they agreed, the detailed results are presented in the tables.