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[en] Full text: The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefitting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan-European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R&D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures and joint research activities through to research and innovation and coordination and support actions funding schemes. Establishment by the research community of Europe and technology platforms are being capitalized. Mapping of research infrastructures and E&T capabilities is allowing a closer cooperation within the European Union and beyond, benefiting from multilateral international agreements and from closer cooperation between Euratom, OECD/NEA and IAEA and international fora. “Euratom success stories” in facilitating Pan-European E&T collaborative efforts through research and training framework programmes show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective “critical mass”, of promoting the creation of “centres of excellence” with an increased support for “open access to key research infrastructures”, exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes. (author)
[en] At the 4th of October 2010 nine countries signed the international agreement on the construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. Adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, FAIR substantially expands research goals and technical possibilities. It will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as applied sciences which will be described in this article briefly.
[en] The purpose of the paper is to explain how the system of a regional safeguard has been operating and developing in the framework of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency of Accounting and control of nuclear Materials (ABACC), and how the international recommendations of radiological protection must be taken into account in the safeguards implementation and its impact in the international context.
[en] The aim of this paper is to describe a relatively recent international agreement on the widely debated concepts of: (i) attributing effects to low dose radiation exposure situations that have occurred in the past and, (ii) inferring radiation risk to situations that are planned to occur in the future. An important global consensus has been recently achieved on these fundamental issues at the level of the highest international intergovernmental body: the General Assembly of the United Nations. The General Assembly has welcomed with appreciation a scientific report on attributing health effects to radiation exposure and inferring risks that had been prepared the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) following a formal request by the General Assembly.
[en] This document gathers information concerning nuclear industry from around the world. The most relevant pieces of information are the following. An agreement has been signed between EDF, AREVA and the Chinese company CGNPC for the designing and development of a third-generation 1000 MW reactor. 2 of the 4 steam generators of the Chooz A power plant, decommissioned in 1991, have been transferred to the Morvilliers (Aube department) disposal center. Hunterston B and Hinkley Point B reactors have been allowed a 7 year lifetime extension. Poland will invest 9.7 billion euros in a nuclear program by 2020 in order to get more energy independence (particularly from Russia). A technical report from Cameco Corporation shows that the uranium reserves of the McArthur River mine are more important by 20% than expected. 2 Swiss associations of industrialists oppose the progressive nuclear energy phaseout because it could jeopardize the competitiveness of Swiss industry. The integral transformation of the German energy sector towards renewable energies will represent an investment of 350 billion euros by 2030 for only electrical power. An opinion poll shows that the population of the United states is largely (65%) in favor of nuclear energy. TEPCO has announced that it is going to accelerate the removal of the spent fuel from the fuel pool of the Fukushima unit 4 in order to reduce the level of danger of the site. EDF and ENEL have announced that they have stopped their cooperation in the nuclear sector. India and Canada have signed an agreement for cooperating in the civil nuclear sector. (A.C.)
[en] Until now, nuclear disarmament only occurred unilaterally (South-Africa, Iraq) or in a bilateral constellation between the U.S. and Russia within the START- and INF-process. Mainly, the reduction or destruction of the delivery systems has been verified by national technical means or inspections, not the dismantlement of nuclear warheads itself. Additionally, the IAEA, but also other verification agencies and institutions have gathered much procedural and technological expertise in verifying the presence or absence of nuclear materials for military purposes. Internationally, there are two main efforts to advance the nuclear disarmament process, which is blocked politically. The ''International Partnership for Disarmament Verification'' (IPNDV) is a 25 state endeavour inter alia to provide a strong analytic contribution to build the needed tool kit of nuclear disarmament concepts and capabilities. At the same time the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (not yet in Force) is established as the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons, with the goal of leading towards their total elimination. Art. 3/4 are advocating ''to remove and destroy nuclear weapons'' by ''verifiable, time-bound, transparent and irreversible destruction''. The talk articulates the results, experiences, principles and technologies of the international efforts to develop nuclear disarmament verifications and attempts to identify the criteria, common ground and gaps of the different approaches.
[en] The accuracy of CT number plots has been found lacking in several medical applications. This is of concern since the ability to compare and evaluate results on a reproducible and standard basis is essential to long term development. Apart from the technical limitations arising from the CT scanner and the data treatment, there are fundamental issues with the definition of the Hounsfield number, namely the absence of a standard photon energy and the need to specify the attenuation mechanism for standard measurements. This paper presents calculations to demonstrate the shortcomings of the present definition with a brief discussion. The remedy is straightforward, but probably of long duration as it would require an international agreement. - Highlights: ► The dependence of the CT number definition on photon energy is examined. ► Graphical examples of the CT number variation with photon energy are given. ► The influence of absorption edges and scattering on CT numbers is discussed. ► A proposal is made for an international standard devoted to CT number evaluation.
[en] The main purpose of this paper is to define the potential and limitations of a Research Reactor (RR) and related nuclear infrastructure in helping a country to build national infrastructure for nuclear science and technology programmes and in particular for nuclear power infrastructure. The RR related infrastructure includes the guidelines, laws, regulations, international agreements, education and training support, and support organisations such as an independent regulatory body and/or supporting/oversight government ministries, as well as physical arrangements such as facility, fuel and waste management, radiation protection, safeguards, etc. The specific RR infrastructure is described in the IAEA document Specific Considerations and Milestones for a Research Reactor project, NES No. NP-T-5.1, 2012. This is briefly presented in this paper including the phases of the development of the RR related infrastructure and the 19 infrastructure issues and conditions to be fulfilled for each of them at the end of each phase.