Results 1 - 10 of 49
Results 1 - 10 of 49. Search took: 0.022 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Since 1959, the Agency has had an action plan by which it would, upon request, arrange to provide assistance to any Member State following an accident involving radioactive materials. To respond more effectively to accidents and emergencies at the international level, the IAEA has launched a project called ''emergency assistance services''. The heart of these services is an Emergency Response System (ERS) currently under development. This article reports about the ERS and the improvements.
[en] The Mechanical Turk was an 18th century hoax, which was advertised as an autonomous chessplaying machine. In fact, it was controlled by a human who sat crouched within the device, manipulating it and making its decisions. Fast-forwarding to the 21st century, Amazon now offers a service called the Amazon Mechanical Turk, which enables “individuals and businesses (known as Requesters) to coordinate the use of human intelligence to perform tasks that computers are currently unable to do” (source: Wikipedia). Despite advances in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, the existence of a service like the Amazon Mechanical Turk demonstrates that some seemingly-automatable tasks are still currently best performed by a human (or a team of humans), rather than by a computer. The processing and analysis of Additional Protocol declarations, in particular those dealing with Research & Development, is one of such tasks, and ISD is developing novel ways to efficiently and effectively human-analyse these declarations. (author)
[en] Sudan is party to Treaty on the Non –Proliferation (NPT) since 1968 and has signed the comprehensive safeguard agreement SCA since 1977(INFCIRC/245) and the small quantities protocol SQP (old text) since 2005. The Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Control Bill, 2015, which approved recently in last Jan 2017 are Addressed clearly Safeguards. some efforts were done regarding to safeguards issue in Sudan for example A technical committee which has been formed by the Secretary General of Sudanese Nuclear & Radiological Regulatory Authority (SNRRA) including many organization, had studied the relevant treaties and international conventions and provide a comprehensive technical report (included safeguards) to the main stakeholders in the same side A national workshop, organized in cooperation with international atomic energy agency (IAEA) on the safeguards agreement in Sudan, 17-18 April 2017), encouraged Sudan to conclude the AP and amendment text of SQP. According to the nuclear Act 2017 the Safeguards Department has many Responsibilities the one of this is establishing and Strengthening State Systems of Accounting and Control for Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in Sudan also Many efforts done by SNRRA regarding to that and followed the IAEA publication as essential guideline and some countries experiences to be as basic steps to establishing and strengthening system to effective control of nuclear materials and activities in Sudan but still have many challenges. (author)
[en] Twelve Non-Nuclear Weapon States of the European Union (EU) have delegated the implementation of provisions of the Additional Protocol (AP) to the European Commission of the EU through side letters (‘Side-Letter States’), whereas some other EU Member States, ‘non-Side-Letter States’, have opted for direct declaration to the IAEA of parts of the AP. A deep analysis of the workflow of AP declarations is a prerequisite to adapt the Protocol Reporter 3 (PR3) software to the needs of these States and thus to support the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) States in their reporting using the new PR3 format. Additionally, the proposed format of Digital Declaration Site Maps (DDSM) attached to declarations under the AP Article 2.a.(iii) is discussed in the paper. (author)
[en] This paper aims to incorporate rules of origin into international taxation into firms' global operations. The purposes of this research are to develop a new model for the global logistics network design of an assembly system with rules of origin and to analyze how the changes of international relationships will affect logistics network design and evaluation functions. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we develop a global logistics network design model prescribing allocating amounts for production, assembly, and distribution. A path-based programming model is presented that represents the complexities associated with international and interenterprise issues. The objective is to minimize total costs, which are costs of production, assembly, transportation, and customs duties. In addition to customs duties, rules of origin, which were, not addressed in previous studies, are considered. Several computational experiments with industrial examples are presented to validate the model. Findings: The results indicate that the tax planning and alignment with the FTA might have a significant impact on the decision-making in the global supply chain for multi-national operating companies. Therefore, the multi-national operating companies need to be aware of importance of what-if simulation before or after FTA changes. Originality/value: While designing global supply chain, the tax effects and use of free-trade agreements (FTAs), were generally omitted. In this paper, we proposed a global logistics network design model with rules of origin. We show the effectiveness and necessity to consider rules of origin. This model can be used in making an optimal global logistics network for global companies. The results of this model are used as a target for a real optimal logistics network. Companies can make a better logistics network by using this model.
[en] Radioactive substances, radioactive materials and objects containing radioactive substances are used for various purposes in medicine, industry and research worldwide. Most users of radioactive materials do not produce them themselves and are therefore dependent on their delivery and/or their removal. This also involves cross-border transportation. If radioactive materials are transported across national borders, the following processes may occur: - the export or export to another state, - the import or import from another state, - the transit (transit) through states to be passed through to the state of destination. In summary, these processes are referred to as "cross-border shipment".
[de]Radioaktive Stoffe, radioaktive Materialien und Gegenstände, die radioaktive Stoffe enthalten, werden für die verschiedensten Zwecke in Medizin, Industrie und Forschung weltweit eingesetzt. Die meisten Anwender von radioaktiven Stoffen stellen diese nicht selbst her und sind darum auf deren Anlieferung und/oder deren Abtransport angewiesen. Damit verbunden sind auch grenzüberschreitende Beförderungen. Werden radioaktive Stoffe über Staatsgrenzen befördert, können folgende Prozesse anfallen: - die Ausfuhr bzw. der Export in einen anderen Staat, - die Einfuhr bzw. der Import aus einem anderen Staat, - die Durchfuhr (Transit) durch Staaten, die bis zum Zielstaat zu durchfahren sind. Zusammengefasst werden diese Vorgänge als "grenzüberschreitende Verbringung" bezeichnet.
[en] The Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015, (Act 895) established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) as the Competent Authority for Safeguards and Additional Protocol reporting and regulation in Ghana. A reporting regime has been established drawing experience from the previous regulatory system under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The regime addresses safeguards and Additional Protocol reporting needs of the NRA. A Draft Safeguards Regulation is currently under review, which was developed with assistance from the International Nuclear Safeguards Engagement Program (INSEP) and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and provides the framework for implementing the reporting regime. Inventory Change Reports, Material Balance Reports, Special Reports and Additional Protocol Reports are addressed in the Draft Safeguards Regulation. The use of the State Declaration Portal and Protocol Reporter 3 are discussed. The paper presents the current reporting regime on safeguards and the Additional Protocol in Ghana. (author)
[en] In their comment piece, Laycock and Lam (Environ. Res. Lett. 13 068001) focused on the importance for reducing emissions of actions beyond individual choices and overconsumption, and raise the issue of family planning as a human right. Here we respond that both individual and collective actions, in private and professional life, are important to reducing emissions to near zero in the next few decades. While we do not argue that individual actions will be sufficient to achieve this profound transformation, we believe that they can be helpful towards this goal, and also note from our own observations that we see personal, professional, and collective actions as often mutually reinforcing rather than contradictory. Regarding overconsumption, we reiterate that our study was designed to illustrate the decisive role that consumption patterns play in driving greenhouse gas emissions, based on the understanding that wealthy, high-carbon individuals are responsible for a disproportionately large share of emissions. Regarding the ethics of family planning, we fully agree with Laycock and Lam (and international agreements) that family planning is a private decision. We give examples of our careful public communication around this issue to provide this context and thank them for the opportunity to do so. In their comment piece, Laycock and Lam provide insight into the discussion of high-impact climate actions, especially concerning the effect of communicating about family size. Here we respond to their thoughts on the scope of our research, including (1) the importance of actions beyond the private individual level, (2) the importance of overconsumption to an individual’s emissions and (3) the ethics of communications pertaining to the planning of family size. (reply)
[en] The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, the first legal instrument to directly address these topics on a global scale, was opened for signature 29 September 1997. It entered into force 18 June 2001. The Convention calls for triannual review meetings of the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party is required to submit a national report to each review meeting that addresses measures taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The first review meeting took place in 2003. The 4th review meeting of this Convention took place from 14 to 23 May 2012 at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Headquarter in Vienna/Austria. (orig.)
[en] This paper will argue that integrated approaches to nuclear safety, security and safeguards (3S) are important to support effective implementation and efficient investment of resources in developing countries. The paper will also identify a series of key legislative and regulatory steps countries can take in this direction as they set out to establish or overhaul their regulatory frameworks. Many successful case studies of 3S integration focus on States with large nuclear industries and regulatory bodies, aiming to solve problems of coordination and duplication of work. By contrast, developing countries often concentrate responsibility for these policy areas within the same bodies because of constraints on the availability of economic resources and expert staff. However, most of the international assistance currently on offer to these countries maintains the separation between safety, security and safeguards, and does relatively little to explore the potential synergies. VERTIC has a long-established expertise in providing legislative and regulatory support to countries on the implementation of requirements arising from nuclear safeguards and nuclear security. Drawing on our knowledge, and on the experiences of some of the countries we have worked with, we aim to provide an overview of emerging State practices, supplemented and organised through our own analytical work. Looking at the role of national legislation and regulatory bodies, the paper will identify common requirements and recommendations across safety, security and safeguards, based on international agreements, best practices and guidance issued by the IAEA and other bodies. The paper will then identify implementation “building blocks” such as legal provisions, organisational principles, and regulatory practices that States can put in place to fulfil key obligations across the three areas. This could help countries with limited resources to minimize waste and duplication of work, and improve the effectiveness of their regulatory framework. These “building blocks” do not represent a complete model of legislation or regulatory system, but rather a starting point for countries to build on. Given the scope of the Symposium, the paper will focus specifically on functions and “building blocks” of particular importance for safeguards implementation. (author)