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[en] Summary: • Overview of HRDC and IRRS was introduced. • The new qualification and training system was explained focusing on Basic level. • NRA has been developing the system and will continue to make efforts for its further improvement.
BackgroundTwo phase 2 trials of oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant therapy for patients with gastric cancer (GC) after D2 gastrectomy were conducted in Japan. The SOXaGC trial evaluated the tolerability and safety of adjuvant therapy with S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX), whereas the J-CLASSIC trial evaluated the feasibility of adjuvant therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX). Because both were studies that did not evaluate survival results as study end points, the authors evaluated the survival outcomes for the patients in the two trials.
MethodsAll 62 and 100 patients in the full analysis set of the SOXaGC and J-CLASSIC trials, respectively, were included in the current study. Their information about survival outcome was collected. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end point was overall survival (OS).
ResultsFor the pathologic stage (pStage 2) patients treated with CAPOX, the 3-year RFS rate was 87.8% and the 3-year OS rate was 92.7%. For the pStage 3 patients treated with SOX and CAPOX, the 3-year RFS rates were respectively 70.9% and 67.8% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–1.72), whereas the 3-year OS rates were respectively 75.7% and 79.3% (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.54–2.26). Subgroup analysis showed significant interactions between the treatment (SOX vs. CAPOX) and both sex (male vs. female; P = 0.024) and histologic type (diffuse vs. other, P = 0.069).
ConclusionsThis exploratory analysis demonstrated that SOX and CAPOX are suggested to have similar efficacy for pStage 3 GC patients after D2 gastrectomy. Differences in the treatment effect according to sex and histologic type warrant further evaluation.
[en] On 11 March 2011, a giant interplate earthquake of magnitude Mw 9.1 struck Tohoku-Oki area in eastern Japan. The earthquake is acknowledged to have permanently altered the stress field in and around the focal region. To capture the temporal change of the overall stress field, I examined 1251 focal mechanisms, from the NIED MT catalog, that occurred before and after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake from January, 2006 to January, 2017 in the focal region near the subducting slab. The examined observations were grouped into six periods, and based on the selected NIED MT catalog, the stress regime in each period was obtained by using the damped stress tensor inversion method. Based on the temporal evolution of stress rotation, the corresponding deviatoric stress level was estimated using a simplified 2D model. Results of the 10-year seismic stress cycle show that several years before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the stress accumulation level seems to have experienced an acceleration process. Studies suggest that this increasingly critically stress state combined with the sufficiently reduced coupling rate off the Tohoku area finally resulted in the unprecedented megathrust event. The coseismic process was violent and released almost all of the deviatoric stress that presented before the main shock. The resultant stress state even reached frictional overshoot. Thus, the postseismic stress pattern in the source region was reshaped significantly, especially for the upper plate and updip portion of the lower plate. After the main shock near the rupture surface, a surprisingly rapid and high-level stress reloading occurred within several postseismic years. To reconcile the classical subduction zone earthquake generation cycle model, the event may be described as an instantaneously decoupled stress state between the upper and inner plates.
[en] Long-term slow slip events (SSEs), the largest events among slow earthquakes, occur repeatedly along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan. Their locations, near the locked zones of the plate interface responsible for great megathrust earthquakes in the Nankai Trough, suggest that these events influence conditions in this critical seismogenic region. Characterizing the spatiotemporal changes of long-term SSEs is important for understanding changes in the locked portions of the plate interface before major earthquakes. Two decades of observations by the global navigation satellite system along the Nankai Trough have detected no long-term SSEs in a large area beneath the Kii Peninsula. We report details of a long-term SSE detected in satellite navigation data from the Shima Peninsula, the easternmost part of the Kii Peninsula, from spring 2017 to autumn 2018. The estimated moment release from this event is equivalent to an earthquake of magnitude 6.4. .
[en] To obtain a better understanding of recent tritium concentration and its seasonal cycle in Japan, monthly precipitation samples were collected in Hokkaido, Gifu and Okinawa prefectures from June 2014 to December 2017. The arithmetic mean ( ± standard deviation) of tritium concentrations in precipitation samples from Hokkaido, Gifu and Okinawa were estimated to be 0.62 ± 0.27 Bq L-1, 0.32 ± 0.12 Bq L-1 and 0.13 ± 0.05 Bq L-1, respectively. These results indicate that the concentrations increase with latitude. In addition, the highest and the lowest concentrations appeared in spring and summer, respectively. To clarify the origins and sources of these cycles, further analyses of chemical compositions of precipitation and meteorological conditions are needed. (authors)
[en] Around the Ogasawara Islands, only a few seismic stations in the area can be used to determine the hypocenters of regional earthquakes; thus, hypocenter location precision tends to be low. To more precisely determine hypocenter locations, we deployed a temporary seismic observation network of pop-up ocean bottom seismometers around the Ogasawara Islands from July to October 2015. We identified a double seismic zone in the 70–200 km depth range associated with the subducting Pacific slab. The slab-normal distance between the two planes of the double seismic zone is about 30–35 km, similar to such distances observed along the Japan and Mariana trenches. Furthermore, we found unusual seismicity in the mantle wedge at 20–50 km depth beneath the Ogasawara trough that might be related to structure formed at the onset of the oceanic slab subduction. The hypocenters determined from the ocean bottom seismometer observation were horizontally separated by a few tens of kilometers from hypocenters published by the Seismological Bulletin of Japan. USGS locations (Preliminary Determination of Epicenters) seem to be offset westward about 30 km compared with the locations determined in this study. .