Results 1 - 10 of 465
Results 1 - 10 of 465. Search took: 0.019 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] In 2016, Ecological Research (ER) celebrated its 30th anniversary. ER’s goal is to be the leading ecological, evolutionary, and biodiversity journal in Asia. This article introduces the development of ER, improvements to its editorial system and their outcomes, and the strategies designed to achieve this goal. ER has already become a leading comprehensive and international publication as shown by statistical evidence and its strong editorial foundation. However, some members of the Ecological Society of Japan (ESJ) retain impressions of an old stereotype about ER. The discrepancy between the current status of the journal and its stereotype may explain why submissions from Japan remain static. A new article category for ER, Biodiversity in Asia, was created to encourage Asian studies. In addition, the Forum category is dedicated to promoting a broad understanding of the ESJ’s various activities. To promote open science, the proportion of open access articles in the journal is increasing. The publication of Data papers has been accelerated to improve the public availability of excellent open data sets. ER symposia and seminars provide good opportunities for members to participate. ER financially supports the invitation of scientists internationally to facilitate research exchanges with other countries and consequently promotes the internationalization of the ESJ. The ESJ is open to the world’s ecologists, and your participation in developing ER is welcome.
BackgroundTwo phase 2 trials of oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant therapy for patients with gastric cancer (GC) after D2 gastrectomy were conducted in Japan. The SOXaGC trial evaluated the tolerability and safety of adjuvant therapy with S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX), whereas the J-CLASSIC trial evaluated the feasibility of adjuvant therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX). Because both were studies that did not evaluate survival results as study end points, the authors evaluated the survival outcomes for the patients in the two trials.
MethodsAll 62 and 100 patients in the full analysis set of the SOXaGC and J-CLASSIC trials, respectively, were included in the current study. Their information about survival outcome was collected. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end point was overall survival (OS).
ResultsFor the pathologic stage (pStage 2) patients treated with CAPOX, the 3-year RFS rate was 87.8% and the 3-year OS rate was 92.7%. For the pStage 3 patients treated with SOX and CAPOX, the 3-year RFS rates were respectively 70.9% and 67.8% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–1.72), whereas the 3-year OS rates were respectively 75.7% and 79.3% (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.54–2.26). Subgroup analysis showed significant interactions between the treatment (SOX vs. CAPOX) and both sex (male vs. female; P = 0.024) and histologic type (diffuse vs. other, P = 0.069).
ConclusionsThis exploratory analysis demonstrated that SOX and CAPOX are suggested to have similar efficacy for pStage 3 GC patients after D2 gastrectomy. Differences in the treatment effect according to sex and histologic type warrant further evaluation.
[en] The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia is a Japan-led cooperation framework for peaceful and safe use of nuclear science and technology in Asia. Eleven Asian countries have been participating in the project. The purposes of the project are to establish safe and effective treatments for predominant cancers in Asia and to improve the treatment outcomes. Since 1995, four international clinical studies of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer have been conducted in the project. At the first clinical study, there were many difficulties, including wide differences in the cultural and socioeconomic status among countries, wide differences in cancer imaging, poor compliance with the protocol, and poor follow-up rate. With the dedicated efforts of the study group members, the recent clinical studies of chemoradiotherapy (the 3rd and 4th studies) were well-controlled, and favorable treatment outcomes were obtained from the studies. (author)
[en] On 11 March 2011, a giant interplate earthquake of magnitude Mw 9.1 struck Tohoku-Oki area in eastern Japan. The earthquake is acknowledged to have permanently altered the stress field in and around the focal region. To capture the temporal change of the overall stress field, I examined 1251 focal mechanisms, from the NIED MT catalog, that occurred before and after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake from January, 2006 to January, 2017 in the focal region near the subducting slab. The examined observations were grouped into six periods, and based on the selected NIED MT catalog, the stress regime in each period was obtained by using the damped stress tensor inversion method. Based on the temporal evolution of stress rotation, the corresponding deviatoric stress level was estimated using a simplified 2D model. Results of the 10-year seismic stress cycle show that several years before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the stress accumulation level seems to have experienced an acceleration process. Studies suggest that this increasingly critically stress state combined with the sufficiently reduced coupling rate off the Tohoku area finally resulted in the unprecedented megathrust event. The coseismic process was violent and released almost all of the deviatoric stress that presented before the main shock. The resultant stress state even reached frictional overshoot. Thus, the postseismic stress pattern in the source region was reshaped significantly, especially for the upper plate and updip portion of the lower plate. After the main shock near the rupture surface, a surprisingly rapid and high-level stress reloading occurred within several postseismic years. To reconcile the classical subduction zone earthquake generation cycle model, the event may be described as an instantaneously decoupled stress state between the upper and inner plates.
[en] Long-term slow slip events (SSEs), the largest events among slow earthquakes, occur repeatedly along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan. Their locations, near the locked zones of the plate interface responsible for great megathrust earthquakes in the Nankai Trough, suggest that these events influence conditions in this critical seismogenic region. Characterizing the spatiotemporal changes of long-term SSEs is important for understanding changes in the locked portions of the plate interface before major earthquakes. Two decades of observations by the global navigation satellite system along the Nankai Trough have detected no long-term SSEs in a large area beneath the Kii Peninsula. We report details of a long-term SSE detected in satellite navigation data from the Shima Peninsula, the easternmost part of the Kii Peninsula, from spring 2017 to autumn 2018. The estimated moment release from this event is equivalent to an earthquake of magnitude 6.4. .
[en] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values according to facility size in Japan. A questionnaire survey was sent to 3000 facilities throughout Japan. Data from each facility were collected including bed number, computed tomography (CT) scan parameters employed and the CTDIvol and/or DLP values displayed on the CT scanner during each examination. The CTDIvol and DLP for 11 adult and 6 paediatric CT examinations were surveyed. Comparison of CTDIvol and DLP values of each examination according to facility size revealed key differences in CT dose between small and large facilities. This study highlights the importance of lowering the dose of coronary artery examination with contrast agent in smaller facilities and of lowering the dose of adult and paediatric head CT without contrast agent in larger facilities. The results of this study are valid in Japan. (authors)
[en] To obtain a better understanding of recent tritium concentration and its seasonal cycle in Japan, monthly precipitation samples were collected in Hokkaido, Gifu and Okinawa prefectures from June 2014 to December 2017. The arithmetic mean ( ± standard deviation) of tritium concentrations in precipitation samples from Hokkaido, Gifu and Okinawa were estimated to be 0.62 ± 0.27 Bq L-1, 0.32 ± 0.12 Bq L-1 and 0.13 ± 0.05 Bq L-1, respectively. These results indicate that the concentrations increase with latitude. In addition, the highest and the lowest concentrations appeared in spring and summer, respectively. To clarify the origins and sources of these cycles, further analyses of chemical compositions of precipitation and meteorological conditions are needed. (authors)