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[en] This guide, intended for elected officials responsible for climate-energy issues, will allow to better understand the major current and future energy issues as well as the skills and role that communities have to play. It also aims to provide the operational elements to set up a transversal policy aimed at accelerating the energy transition at the local level and benefiting all citizens. This guide proposes to the elected official the keys to acting on the following themes: - Develop and implement a public energy policy in its territory with the right planning, monitoring and animation tools; - Control the energy consumption of its heritage and its territory (public buildings, lighting, mobility, etc.); - Accelerate the energy renovation of housing and fight against energy insecurity; - Support the development of all renewable and recovery energies (biomass, geothermal energy, waste heat, wind, photovoltaic, biogas, etc.) as well as hydrogen; - Putting its energy networks at the service of the energy transition (electricity, gas, heat).
[fr]Ce guide, destine aux elus charges des questions climat-energie, vous permettra de mieux apprehender les grands enjeux energetiques actuels et a venir de meme que les competences et le role que les collectivites ont a jouer. Il a egalement comme objectif d'apporter les elements operationnels pour mettre en place une politique transversale visant a accelerer la transition energetique au niveau local et en faire beneficier l'ensemble des citoyens. Vous trouverez ainsi dans ce guide les cles pour agir sur les thematiques suivantes: - Elaborer et mettre en oeuvre une politique publique energetique sur son territoire avec les bons outils de planification, de suivi et d'animation; - Maitriser les consommations d'energie de son patrimoine et de son territoire (batiments publics, eclairage, mobilites...); - Accelerer la renovation energetique des logements et lutter contre la precarite energetique; - Accompagner le developpement de toutes les energies renouvelables et de recuperation (biomasse, geothermie, chaleur fatale, eolien, photovoltaique, biogaz...) ainsi que l'hydrogene; - Mettre ses reseaux d'energie au service de la transition energetique (electricite, gaz, chaleur). Elabore en partenariat avec la Banque des territoires - Caisse des Depots, ce guide est le fruit de l'expertise d'Amorce au contact de l'ensemble des collectivites et des acteurs impliques sur le territoire dans le domaine de l'energie.
Smart Grids - CRE. The files: The advanced meters, Electrical vehicles, The smart building, Economic models, Super grids, The integration of Renewable energies, Insular areas, NTICs, Smart cities, The consum'actor, Storage, Germany and smart grids, Smart gas grids, Smart public lighting and street furniture, Smart heat and cold networks, Smart water networks, Micro-grids, Data management, Bio-methane integration, Natural gas for vehicles (NGV), Demand flexibility, Japan, Energy efficiency, Connected objects, Hydrogen, R and D: a multi-faceted concept, Rail smart grid, Block-chain applied to energy
[en] 28 thematic files propose an overview of the present situation and of recent evolutions regarding technological, economic and legal aspects and experiments for the following domains related to smart grids: advanced meters, electrical vehicles, smart buildings, economic models, Super grids, the integration of renewable energies, insular areas, the new technologies of information and communication, smart cities, the consumer-actor, the situation of smart grids in Germany, the emergence of smart gas grids, smart public lighting and street furniture, smart heat and cold networks, smart water networks, micro-grids, data management, bio-methane integration into gas networks, natural gas for vehicles (NGV), the demand flexibility, energy efficiency, connected objects, hydrogen as an energy vector, the multi-faceted character of R and D, the rail smart grid, and the application of the block-chain concept to energy
[en] Laser lighting systems can take many form factors for applications, such as spotlighting, general illumination, or decorative lighting. The use of lasers in conjunction with phosphors for white lighting leads to questions about incorporating the various package elements. Some practical considerations of a transmission geometry system implementing a blue laser and a yellow Ce:YAG single crystal phosphor are discussed, with specific focus on color tuning and the optical efficiency of the single crystal. A compact emitter is demonstrated with examples of modifications to increase the system performance and complexity. Moving from a cool white system to a warm white system is done through the addition of a red light such as a red laser or red phosphor. The single crystal phosphor component needs to allow light to be coupled in from the laser and has high extraction efficiency. A wavelength-selective reflective coating is implemented to address these concerns, which increases the luminous efficacy of the system. Engineering the phosphor element using this concept may allow for single crystal phosphors to be viable options for future laser lighting systems. (© 2020 Wiley‐VCH GmbH)
[en] The energy saving certificates (CEE) is a regulatory system obliging the energy suppliers to perform energy saving through various actions for the benefit of consumers. For communities and companies, this mechanism is an additional financial lever for their energy conservation projects. Because of this measure, energy suppliers are likely to financially support project owners. The aim of these two guidebooks is to present the energy saving certificates principles and to provide communities and companies with practical elements allowing them to integrate energy saving certificates into their energy control projects.
[en] Whereas some horticultural production is based on the use of artificial lighting in greenhouses, with a continuous use of this lighting in winter, blue, red and white LEDs are now commonly used instead of sodium lamps. This publication reports the study of the exposure of employees to such a lighting in a specific case as some wavelengths may have harmful effects on eyes and skin. Lamp configuration and models are indicated, and the determination of exposure levels is reported. Risk groups according to a standard are also indicated, as well as exposure thresholds. Risks are assessed according to a European directive. The efficiency of protection goggles is analysed
[en] The latest research focused on the analysis of algal growth and the dynamics of their growth use the laser diffraction technique, enabling determination of the volume fraction of suspended particles with specific diameters in aqueous solution as well as their fractal dimensions. This study focuses on the possibility of using a laser granulometer to assess the growth dynamics of algae growing in treated wastewater in a hydroponic system, supported by artificial lighting with the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). On the basis of the measurements, the fractal dimension (Df) of algae was determined. An attempt was made to apply the modified Avrami equation describing the crystallization process for the analysis of algae growth dynamics in wastewater. Presented results show that the fractal dimension of suspended matter, largely created by algae, in the case of additional lighting of the hydroponic system at night, takes lower values (Df ~ 1.0) than in sewage without additional light source (Df ~ 2.0). In each measurement series, the fractal dimension of particles in the tank with lighting in the end of the experiment was about 33–43% lower than in the tank without LEDs. The analysis of changes in particle diameters calculated on the basis of Avrami equation largely corresponds with the stages of algae growth. During the measurement series with lower air temperatures, the growth of algae in the tank with additional light was faster than in the tank without LEDs. The obtained information can be the basis for determining the effective method of removing algae from wastewater treated in the hydroponic system, before they are discharged to the receiver in order to prevent the outflow of increased concentrations of total suspended solids.
[en] The recent introduction of the Multi-Pulse Shake-The-Box (MP-STB) method opened the possibility of extending 3D Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) to the investigation of high-speed flows, where long time-resolved sequences of recordings are currently not available due to the limited acquisition frequency of high-speed systems. The MP-STB technique makes use of an iterative approach to overcome the limitations posed by the short observation time offered by a multi-pulse recording sequence. Multi-pulse sequences are typically obtained by synchronizing multiple illumination systems to generate bursts of laser pulses where the time separation can be freely adjusted down to less than a microsecond. Several strategies can be adopted for the recording of multi-pulse sequences; a dual camera system can be adopted to separate the single pulses onto the camera frames (either by means of polarization or timing), while the use of multi-exposed frames allows for the employment of a single imaging system, largely reducing the complexity and cost of the experimental setup. The main strategies to generate multi-pulse recording sequences are presented here; the application and performances of the MP-STB method are discussed based on the analysis of experimental data from the investigation of three turbulent boundary layer flows at velocities ranging from 10 to approximately 30 m/s. Results show the capability of the MP-STB technique in reconstructing accurate track fields which can be exploited both to describe instantaneous flow structures and to produce highly spatially resolved statistics by means of ensemble average in small bins. The iterative reconstruction and tracking strategy for MP-STB can be successfully adapted to the case of multi-exposed frames. Results suggest that, despite the increase in particle image density resulting from the double-exposed particle images, the adoption of multi-exposed recordings has the potential to become the technique of choice for the recording of multi-pulse sequences suitable for Lagrangian particle tracking in high-speed flows. Graphical abstract: .
[en] Artificial light is a tangible manifestation of economic and social development, as well as a response to certain needs, especially comfort and civil and road safety. However, this use has been so associated with technological progress that its invasion of daily life has been almost imperceptible. With the recent increase in night lighting (11 million light points in 2016 according to the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management) and the production of new lamp technologies (in particular light-emitting diodes or LEDs), societal concerns have emerged and are growing. These concerns include light pollution and the impact of blue light on human health and the environment. The scientific community has also taken up the subject, publishing in recent years a large and ever-increasing number of articles on the effects of artificial light at night on fauna and flora as well as on human health. In this review, we propose a synthesis of knowledge on human health effects of light based on scientific reports and an update of recent scientific production. This review updates knowledge of the chrono-biological effects of light at night, particularly blue light. We also briefly describe the potential beneficial effects of light on well-being. (authors)
[en] This paper reported on the development history of radiation-resistant LED lighting fixtures as well as the state of demonstration experiments at J-PARC. The demonstration experiments based on gamma irradiation verified that the manufactured radiation-resistant LED lighting fixtures can maintain 70% or above of the initial illuminance even under a high radiation dose such as 2 MGy of gamma ray absorption dose. Lighting fixtures (light sources) were installed at the bottom of the cable rack installed on the side of the accelerator in the main tunnel that holds the J-PARC Main Ring accelerator main body, and long-term demonstration experiments have been conducted since September 2016. The gamma ray absorption dose of the fixture parts was 600 Gy to 800 Gy, and the neutron flux density was 1.9e+13 [cm-2]. In the demonstration experiments so far, it has been confirmed by data that radiation resistance is exhibited even under complex radiation environment, where gamma rays and neutrons having wide energy spectra move in. (A.O.)
[en] The main control-room is the most important monitoring and control center of nuclear power plant, and is also the most complex place in the man-machine interface of the plant. It has been thought the most frequently place where the accidents due to human factors happened. In order to avoid the possibility of error operation of operators caused by the improper lighting design, the human factors consideration for the lighting design is described in this paper according to the characteristics of digital control-room of nuclear power plant nowadays. (author)