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[en] Dye penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing are among conventional NDT methods. For increased sensitivity, fluorescence dyes and particles can be used with ultraviolet (black) lights. UV flaw detection lights have different spectra. With the help of photo-filters, the output lights are transferred to UV-A and visible zones. UV-A light can be harmful to human eyes in some conditions. In this research, UV intensity and spectrum were obtained by a Radio-spectrometer for two different UV flaw detector lighting systems. According to the standards such as ASTM E709, UV intensity must be at least 10 W/m2 at a distance of 30 cm. Based on our measurements; these features not achieved in some lamps. On the other hand, intensity and effective intensity of UV lights must be below the some limits for prevention of unprotected eye damage. NDT centers are usually using some type of UV measuring devices. A method for the estimation of effective intensity of UV light has been proposed in this research.
[en] Highlights: • An unsupervised framework to detect activities and potential savings in real-time. • Eliminating the need for collecting labeled activity data for training while achieving a high performance. • Three sub-algorithms for action detection, activity recognition and waste estimation. • Experimental validation in a testbed office with five occupants and two single-occupancy apartments. • The framework could potentially be integrated with automation module for appliance control. - Abstract: More than half of the electricity in residential and commercial buildings is consumed by lighting systems and appliances. Consumption by these service systems is directly associated with occupant activities. By recognizing activities and identifying the associated possible energy savings, more effective strategies can be developed to design better buildings and automation systems. In line with this motivation, using inductive and deductive reasoning, we introduce a framework to detect occupant activities and potential wasted energy consumption and peak-hour usage that could be shifted to non-peak hours in real-time. Our framework consists of three sub-algorithms for action detection, activity recognition and waste estimation. As the real-time input, the action detection algorithm receives the data from the sensing system, consisting of plug meters and sensors, to detect the occurred actions (e.g., turning on an appliance) via our unsupervised clustering models. Detected actions are then used by the activity recognition algorithm to recognize the activities (e.g., preparing food) through semantic reasoning on our constructed ontology. Based on the recognized activities, the waste estimation algorithm identifies the potential waste and estimates the potential savings. To evaluate the performance of our framework, an experimental study was carried out in an office with five occupants and in two single-occupancy apartments for two weeks. Following the experiment, the performance of the action detection and activity recognition algorithms was evaluated using the ground truth labels for actions and activities. Average accuracy was 97.6% for action detection using Gaussian Mixture Model with Principal Components Analysis and 96.7% for activity recognition. In addition, 35.5% of the consumption of an appliance or lighting system in average was identified as potential savings.
[en] The experiments focused on the determination of the phycoremediation potential of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus in targeted contaminated aqueous solutions containing radioisotopes Cs-137 and Co-60. Phycoremediation potential was determined by monitoring the effect of different ambient pH values for S. obliquus in pH 2.5: 7, 9.2, and C. reinhardtii at pH 2.4: 7.5, 9.5. In all experiments, a decrease in the activity of the solution over time was also observed. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • Lighting control devices policy can help to reduce social and environmental concerns. • Lighting control devices can reduce electrical generation and emissions of PM2.5, SOx and NOx. • Lighting control device implementation policies can increase population life quality due to air pollution reduction. • Very high cost affects the use of lighting control devices implementation. • Lighting control devices implementation policies should be based on research related to detailed device co-benefits. - Abstract: Merida, Mexico, is a city that spends 17% of its electricity for lighting purposes. This electricity comes from thermal power plants that use fossil fuels. These emit a large amount of particulate matter, around 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), which can penetrate deepest lung parts (alveoli), causing cardiovascular disease. Mexico has a policy (NOM-028-ENER-2010) that establishes the minimum efficiency for lighting in buildings. However, lighting is often used inappropriately (e.g. daytime or when there are no people using them). One solution for this problem is to use control device technology of multiple types (combination of daylight, motion and presence sensors). However, these strategies have not been fully implemented in Mexico, mainly due to the high cost of commercial control devices. This study aims to know the lost co-benefits when control devices are not implemented for lighting cost reduction, such as: energy saving (kw-h/yr), electricity bill reduction (USD/yr), PM2.5 emission reduction (μg/m3), cardiovascular death reduction (death/yr) and cardiovascular death cost reduction (USD/yr). For those reasons, it is recommended that energy policy decisions regarding building lighting efficiency include the implementation of control devices. Moreover, such policies should be preceded by research studies focused on detailed device cost, co-benefits and socio-economic analysis.
[en] Accelerator facilities, nuclear fusion facilities, nuclear reactor facilities, etc. have areas that will be under high radiation environments. The radiation resistance test of equipment and materials that can be applied under these circumstances is generally evaluated by gamma ray irradiation test. However, in a facility having a proton accelerator, not only gamma rays having a wider energy width but also radiation complex environments in which high energy charged particles such as protons and π mesons and neutrons directly fly. In this report, we installed “Radiation-resistant LED lighting” developed by our company in radiation facilities such as J-PARC. We report the present condition and the method of demonstration test. (author)
[en] Light pollution is an emerging subject in France, international scientific studies on artificial lighting demonstrating the impacts of excess lighting on biodiversity and human health. Non-governmental organizations have taken up this subject in the context of very rapid developments in lighting technologies (LEDs). Public lighting is perceived as the main factor of light pollution even if private lighting is also impacting on certain territories, in particular peri-urban areas. It is noted a lack of coherence in the policy of prevention of the risk of light pollution, seen from the only angle of energy savings linked to the renovation of public lighting, without taking into account the challenges of biodiversity or human health. It is therefore proposed to favor a pragmatic approach on the basis of a 'light' action plan, declined at different scales and by type of actors. The mission proposes that a geo-localized inventory of light sources in the public park of communities be generalized. It advocates launching a national education, information, training and communication plan and opening up a debate on environmental labeling for lighting. Actions could be quickly implemented to raise awareness in particular of traders and businesses about the impacts of dazzling lighting and compliance with regulations, and support communities, reluctant to take a repressive approach. In legal terms, it is considered necessary to make technical standardization the preferred vector for disseminating light pollution prevention to professionals, especially since it is included in the specifications of the renovation operations markets. However, this implies state intervention and an improved articulation with existing regulations. It is suggested that the various sectoral regulations include harmonized provisions for equipment or installations having the same negative impact in terms of excessive lighting. A planning is recommended to better prevent risks at different levels in order to gradually integrate into it a 'star pattern' and a prescriptive and coherent 'light plan', adapted to the local context, including the local advertising regulations. Several priority actions are identified: replacement of the most harmful lamps and bulbs, night-time extinction or sober lighting of commercial and industrial sites, focus on excessive lighting of illuminated advertising panels. Several indicators to raise awareness of the challenges would have to be created such as the number of light points, the renovation progress of the public lighting park, the evolution of indicators of nighttime biodiversity, etc.
[fr]La pollution lumineuse est un sujet emergent en France, les etudes scientifiques internationales sur l'eclairage artificiel demontrant les impacts de l'exces d'eclairage sur la biodiversite et sur la sante humaine. Les organisations non gouvernementales se sont emparees de ce sujet dans un contexte d'evolution tres rapide des technologies d'eclairage (Leds). L'eclairage public est percu comme le principal facteur de pollution lumineuse meme si l'eclairage prive est aussi impactant sur certains territoires, notamment periurbains. La mission constate un manque de coherence de la politique de la prevention du risque de pollution lumineuse, vue sous le seul angle des economies d'energie liees a la renovation de l'eclairage public, sans prise en compte des enjeux de biodiversite ou de sante humaine. Il est donc propose de privilegier une approche pragmatique sur la base d'un plan d'action 'lumiere', decline a differentes echelles et par type d'acteurs. La mission propose que soit generalise un inventaire geolocalise des sources lumineuses du parc public des collectivites. Elle preconise de lancer un plan national d'education, d'information, de formation, de communication et d'ouvrir une reflexion sur un etiquetage environnemental de l'eclairage. Des actions pourraient etre rapidement mises en oeuvre pour sensibiliser notamment commercants et entreprises aux impacts des eclairages eblouissants et au respect de la reglementation, et soutenir les collectivites, peu enclines a une approche repressive. Au plan juridique, la mission estime necessaire de faire de la normalisation technique le vecteur privilegie de diffusion de la prevention de la pollution lumineuse aupres des professionnels, d'autant qu'elle est integree dans les cahiers des charges des marches d'operations de renovation. Mais cela implique l'intervention de l'Etat et une articulation amelioree avec la reglementation existante. La mission suggere que les differentes reglementations sectorielles prevoient des dispositions harmonisees pour des equipements ou des installations ayant le meme impact negatif en termes d'eclairage excessif. Elle propose un dispositif de sanction administrative unifie pour toutes les installations lumineuses excessives, y compris les enseignes et panneaux publicitaires lumineux. Elle recommande de s'appuyer sur la planification qui permet mieux de prevenir les risques a differents niveaux pour y integrer progressivement une 'trame etoilee' et un 'plan lumiere' prescriptif et coherent, adapte au contexte local, comprenant aussi le reglement local de publicite (RLP). La mission identifie plusieurs actions prioritaires: mettre l'accent sur le remplacement des luminaires et ampoules les plus nefastes, sur l'extinction nocturne ou la sobriete de l'eclairage des sites commerciaux et industriels, sur l'eclairage excessif des panneaux publicitaires lumineux. Une suppression d'ici 6 ans du stock des luminaires boules, lampes a sodium et a vapeur de mercure pourrait etre prevue en y associant une action specifique de Recyclum. Seraient a hierarchiser les priorites de renovation et les actions sur les equipements les plus polluants au plan national pour y associer plus facilement une eventuelle aide financiere publique. Plusieurs indicateurs de sensibilisation aux enjeux seraient a creer: l'evolution du nombre de points lumineux, l'avancement de la renovation du parc d'eclairage public, le developpement des trames etoilees, les evolutions des especes temoins de la biodiversite nocturne. La mission propose un pilotage national plus affirme pour definir des priorites d'action publique et mettre en place un veritable suivi sur la base d'indicateurs. La creation d'un conseil national 'lumiere', preside par un elu, associant les principaux acteurs concernes (collectivites, professionnels, ONG), serait ici un atout
[en] This feasibility study addresses the potential of development of renewable energies within the framework of preliminary and ZAC creation studies on a sector of the commune of Chateaugiron (Ille-et-Vilaine). After a brief presentation of the concerned territory, a recall of the European and national context of struggle against climate warming, a recall of the definition of a recovery renewable energy, and an overview of the situation of energy consumptions in Brittany, the report proposes an overview of raw energy deposits at the regional scale (wood-energy, valorisation of organic wastes, geothermal and aero-thermal energy, hydroelectricity), and an assessment of net energy deposits in the studied area (programme description and estimation of energy consumptions and thermal powers, reference scenario, solar energy, geothermal and aero-thermal energy, wind energy, wood energy). Energy costs and their evolution are assessed, as well as CO2 emissions by the different solutions. Recommendations are stated about public lighting
[en] A first document presents the opinion of the ANSES (the French national agency for food, environmental and work health safety) on the effects of systems using electro-luminescent diodes on health safety and on the environment (fauna and flora). It presents the context and scope of the referral, describes the organisation and methodology of the expertise, discusses the analysis and conclusions regarding peculiarities of emitted light, regulatory and standard evolutions since 2010 and various health effects, disturbances and risks related to exposure to LED light (photo-toxicity, circadian rhythm, light temporal modulation), the impact on the environment (hazard for biodiversity, light pollution). Some recommendations are then stated. The second document reports a collective expertise. It presents the context, scope and modalities of this expertise, comments the technological evolutions of LED-based systems and of the regulatory framework, discusses the various effects of lights rich in blue light and of LED systems on health, discusses the characterisation of exposures, the assessment of devices of protection against blue light, the relationship between LED and light pollution, the impact of LEDs on the environment and on biodiversity, and proposes an analysis of LED life cycle.