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[en] Highlights: • An unsupervised framework to detect activities and potential savings in real-time. • Eliminating the need for collecting labeled activity data for training while achieving a high performance. • Three sub-algorithms for action detection, activity recognition and waste estimation. • Experimental validation in a testbed office with five occupants and two single-occupancy apartments. • The framework could potentially be integrated with automation module for appliance control. - Abstract: More than half of the electricity in residential and commercial buildings is consumed by lighting systems and appliances. Consumption by these service systems is directly associated with occupant activities. By recognizing activities and identifying the associated possible energy savings, more effective strategies can be developed to design better buildings and automation systems. In line with this motivation, using inductive and deductive reasoning, we introduce a framework to detect occupant activities and potential wasted energy consumption and peak-hour usage that could be shifted to non-peak hours in real-time. Our framework consists of three sub-algorithms for action detection, activity recognition and waste estimation. As the real-time input, the action detection algorithm receives the data from the sensing system, consisting of plug meters and sensors, to detect the occurred actions (e.g., turning on an appliance) via our unsupervised clustering models. Detected actions are then used by the activity recognition algorithm to recognize the activities (e.g., preparing food) through semantic reasoning on our constructed ontology. Based on the recognized activities, the waste estimation algorithm identifies the potential waste and estimates the potential savings. To evaluate the performance of our framework, an experimental study was carried out in an office with five occupants and in two single-occupancy apartments for two weeks. Following the experiment, the performance of the action detection and activity recognition algorithms was evaluated using the ground truth labels for actions and activities. Average accuracy was 97.6% for action detection using Gaussian Mixture Model with Principal Components Analysis and 96.7% for activity recognition. In addition, 35.5% of the consumption of an appliance or lighting system in average was identified as potential savings.
[en] After a statement of the initiative 'Light and electricity for all, as a universal right', and statements by the Economic Community of West African States, by the African Union, and by Jean-Louis Borloo, this press file contains various articles on Borloo's action, on the search for necessary financing for the Electricity for Africa project, and on the inauguration of the Kaleta hydroelectric dam in Guinea.
[en] This paper reported on the development history of radiation-resistant LED lighting fixtures as well as the state of demonstration experiments at J-PARC. The demonstration experiments based on gamma irradiation verified that the manufactured radiation-resistant LED lighting fixtures can maintain 70% or above of the initial illuminance even under a high radiation dose such as 2 MGy of gamma ray absorption dose. Lighting fixtures (light sources) were installed at the bottom of the cable rack installed on the side of the accelerator in the main tunnel that holds the J-PARC Main Ring accelerator main body, and long-term demonstration experiments have been conducted since September 2016. The gamma ray absorption dose of the fixture parts was 600 Gy to 800 Gy, and the neutron flux density was 1.9e+13 [cm-2]. In the demonstration experiments so far, it has been confirmed by data that radiation resistance is exhibited even under complex radiation environment, where gamma rays and neutrons having wide energy spectra move in. (A.O.)
[en] Whereas some horticultural production is based on the use of artificial lighting in greenhouses, with a continuous use of this lighting in winter, blue, red and white LEDs are now commonly used instead of sodium lamps. This publication reports the study of the exposure of employees to such a lighting in a specific case as some wavelengths may have harmful effects on eyes and skin. Lamp configuration and models are indicated, and the determination of exposure levels is reported. Risk groups according to a standard are also indicated, as well as exposure thresholds. Risks are assessed according to a European directive. The efficiency of protection goggles is analysed
[en] This press file contains numerous documents which notably present the access to light and electricity as a universal right; indicate countries which have less than 80 per cent of access to electricity, indicate countries which contribute to the Green Climate Fund, indicate the different steps of the Energies for Africa project, indicate State leaders met by Jean-Louis Borloo, report some official statements and proposals, present some committed institutions. It also contains articles published by various media on the activity, actions and statements regarding energy issues for Africa and the Energies for Africa project. Partner industries and institutions are indicated.
[en] Energy-use statistics in Tanzania reflect the country's low level of industrialization and development. In 2016, only 16.9% of rural and 65.3% of urban inhabitants in mainland Tanzania were connected to some form of electricity. We use a nationally representative three-wave panel dataset (2008-2013) to contribute to the literature on household energy use decisions in Tanzania in the context of the stacking and energy ladder hypotheses. We firstly adopt a panel multinomial-Logit approach to model the determinants of household cooking- and lighting-fuel choices. Secondly, we focus explicitly on energy stacking behaviour, proposing various ways of measuring what is inferred when stacking behaviour is thought of in the context of the energy transition and presenting household level correlates of energy stacking behaviour. Thirdly, since fuel uses have gender-differentiated impacts, we investigate women's bargaining power in the decision-making process of household fuel choices. We find that whilst higher household incomes are strongly associated with a transition towards the adoption of more modern fuels, especially lighting fuels, this transition takes place in a context of significant fuel stacking. In Tanzania, government policy has been aimed mostly at connecting households to the electric grid. However, the public health, environmental and social benefits of access to modern energy sources are likely to be diminished in a context of significant fuel stacking. Lastly, we present evidence that the educational attainment of women in the household is an important aspect of household fuel choices. (authors)
[en] Accelerator facilities, nuclear fusion facilities, nuclear reactor facilities, etc. have areas that will be under high radiation environments. The radiation resistance test of equipment and materials that can be applied under these circumstances is generally evaluated by gamma ray irradiation test. However, in a facility having a proton accelerator, not only gamma rays having a wider energy width but also radiation complex environments in which high energy charged particles such as protons and π mesons and neutrons directly fly. In this report, we installed “Radiation-resistant LED lighting” developed by our company in radiation facilities such as J-PARC. We report the present condition and the method of demonstration test. (author)
[en] Porous GaAs layers were formed by anodic etching of n-doped mirror like GaAs surfaces in a HF:C2H5OH:HCl:H2O2:H2O electrolyte. Aluminum doped ZnO thin films (AZO) have been deposited at room temperature by RF plasma sputtering method onto both GaAs wafers and porous GaAs layers. Film thickness was set nominally at t = 100 nm. The formed samples were characterized by means of xray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electrical properties were determined by measurement and analysis of current-voltage characteristics of the device depending on illumination intensity (author).
[en] In order to reduce the impact of global warming, the European Commission has decided in the continuation of the Kyoto protocol to reduce drastically greenhouse gas emissions. In this matter, the progressive replacement of thermal vehicles by electric ones is considered as a key objective. For that purpose, several prerequisites must be considered for the rapid deployment of Electrical Vehicles (EV) in the European market. The first of these prerequisites consists in the design of a new generation of batteries with higher energy efficiency, larger capacity and improved robustness. The second one is the design and rapid deployment of cost effective charging infrastructures. At last, the emergence of European standards in all these matters is an imperious necessity for the viability of the EVs European market. This thesis is mainly focused on the second of these three prerequisites. It is widely admitted that in the short term, EVs usage will be essentially limited to urban areas before being extended to the whole territory. As it is considered by the French National TELEWATT research project to which we have contributed, street lighting networks can be used judiciously to deploy in the short term low cost charging infrastructures. The basic principle of this project consists in coupling to each street light one or two EV's charging stations if one or two parking spots are located nearby. Various electrical constraints specified in the TELEWATT project must be satisfied to enable EVs' charging without degrading the quality of the lighting system. In this thesis, we begin to demonstrate the feasibility of such an operation. For that purpose, we have developed a simulator enabling to depict the dynamic behavior of the global system. The strength and originality of this simulator resides in its capacity to determine in real-time and with the necessary precision if an EV can effectively be connected to a charging station. The response to this question depends on static and dynamic characteristics of the street lighting network and on the state of charge of the batteries of both the connected and candidate EVs. The dynamism of the charging process of each EV strongly depends on the instantaneous power consumed by the global infrastructure. The second original result of this thesis consists in the design of scheduling policies to activate the various charging stations. Our objective is to propose via these scheduling policies, various types of guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to the end-users. Such guarantees can be declined for instance in terms of expected state of charge for a given parking term. (author)
[fr]De facon a reduire l'impact du rechauffement climatique, la Commission Europeenne a decide dans le prolongement du protocole de Kyoto de reduire drastiquement les emissions de gaz a effet de serre. En la matiere, le remplacement progressif des vehicules thermiques par des vehicules electriques est considere comme un objectif cle. Dans ce but, plusieurs prerequis doivent etre pris en compte pour le deploiement rapide des vehicules electriques sur le marche europeen. Le premier de ces prerequis consiste en la conception d'une nouvelle generation de batteries avec une efficacite energetique accrue, une plus grande capacite et une robustesse amelioree. Le second prerequis est la conception et le deploiement rapide et economique d'infrastructures de recharge. Enfin, l'emergence de normes europeennes dans tous ces domaines est une imperieuse necessite pour la viabilite economique du marche europeen des vehicules electriques. Cette these se focalise essentiellement sur le second de ces trois prerequis. Il est largement admis qu'a court terme, l'usage des vehicules electriques sera essentiellement limite aux zones urbaines avant d'etre etendu a tout le territoire. Tel que cela est pris en compte par le projet de recherche national TELEWATT dans lequel nous avons ete impliques, les reseaux d'eclairage publics en zones urbaines peuvent etre utilises judicieusement pour deployer a court terme des infrastructures de recharge bon marche. Le principe de base de ce projet consiste a connecter a chaque candelabre une ou deux stations de recharge pour vehicule electrique si une ou deux places de parking sont disponibles dans l'environnement proche. Diverses contraintes electriques specifiees dans le projet TELEWATT doivent etre satisfaites pour permettre la recharge de vehicules electriques sans perturber la qualite de l'eclairage. Dans cette these, nous commencons par demontrer la faisabilite d'une telle operation. Pour cela, nous avons developpe un simulateur permettant de decrire le comportement dynamique du systeme global. La force et l'originalite de ce simulateur reside dans sa capacite a determiner en temps-reel et avec la precision necessaire si un vehicule electrique peut effectivement etre connecte a une borne. La reponse a cette question depend des caracteristiques statiques et dynamiques du reseau d'eclairage et de l'etat de charge des vehicules deja connectes comme des vehicules candidats. La dynamique du processus de recharge de chaque vehicule electrique depend fortement de la puissance instantanee consommee par l'infrastructure globale. Le second objectif original de cette these consiste en la conception de politiques d'ordonnancement d'activation des diverses bornes de recharge. Notre objectif est de proposer, via ces politiques d'ordonnancement, divers types de qualite de service (QoS) garanties aux usagers. De telles garanties peuvent par exemple se decliner en termes d'etat de charge attendu pour une certaine duree de stationnement. (auteur)
[en] A first document presents the opinion of the ANSES (the French national agency for food, environmental and work health safety) on the effects of systems using electro-luminescent diodes on health safety and on the environment (fauna and flora). It presents the context and scope of the referral, describes the organisation and methodology of the expertise, discusses the analysis and conclusions regarding peculiarities of emitted light, regulatory and standard evolutions since 2010 and various health effects, disturbances and risks related to exposure to LED light (photo-toxicity, circadian rhythm, light temporal modulation), the impact on the environment (hazard for biodiversity, light pollution). Some recommendations are then stated. The second document reports a collective expertise. It presents the context, scope and modalities of this expertise, comments the technological evolutions of LED-based systems and of the regulatory framework, discusses the various effects of lights rich in blue light and of LED systems on health, discusses the characterisation of exposures, the assessment of devices of protection against blue light, the relationship between LED and light pollution, the impact of LEDs on the environment and on biodiversity, and proposes an analysis of LED life cycle.