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[en] To study the relationship between the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, type 18, the expression of survivin, and the mutation of p53 gene in lung squamous carcinoma tissue for the research of pathogenesis of lung carcinoma.This study was carried out at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Xiangfan Central Hospital of Hubei Province, China from September 2008 to May 2010. Forty-five specimens of lung squamous carcinoma tissue confirmed by histopathology were the excisional specimens taken by the Thoracic Surgery of Xiangfan Central Hospital. Normal tissue, closely adjacent to the fresh carcinoma specimens, was used as the control group for p53 gene mutation analysis. Sixteen surgical excisional specimens of benign lung disease were used as a control group of non-carcinomatous diseases. Human papillomavirus DNA were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we used the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism-ethidium bromide (PCR-SSCP-EB) method to detect the mutations of the p53 gene. The expression of the survivin gene was detected by immunohistochemistry methods. Approximately 68.9% of 45 lung squamous carcinoma tissue had p53 gene mutations. The mutation rate of exon 5-8 p53 were 15.6%, 17.8%, 15.6% and 20%. Approximately 42.2% of lung squamous cell carcinoma samples were shown to be positive for HPV DNA expression and 62.2% were positive for survivin expression. There was an inverse correlation between the presence of HPV infections and mutations of p53 gene; and the mutations of p53 gene and expression of survivin had a positive relationship. Mutation of p53 gene and HPV infection may facilitate each other in the generation of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal expression of the survivin gene may take part in the onset and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma (Author).
[en] This document describes the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) J. Newell Stannard Collection. Items in the Stannard Collection are available upon written request. The written correspondence should identify specific items, or the topic of the items, to be retrieved from the NRA holdings. The NRA is a Department of Energy Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) funded project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Dr. Charles R. Watson, telephone (509) 376-3483, is the project director. The NRA project is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog data, tissues, and documents related to radiobiology studies. This archiving activity will provide future researchers with information for statistical analyses to compare results of these and other studies and materials for analysis and application of advanced molecular biology techniques
[en] Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism. Secondary active transporters move molecules across cell membranes by coupling this process to the energetically favourable downhill movement of ions or protons along an electrochemical gradient. They function by the alternating access model of transport in which, through conformational changes, the substrate binding site alternately faces either side of the membrane. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining the crystal structure of a single transporter in different conformational states, relatively little structural information is known to explain how this process occurs. Here, the structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, has been determined in three conformational states; from this a mechanism is proposed for switching from the outward-facing open conformation through an occluded structure to the inward-facing open state
[en] First it was the luminous idea of the natural selection, proposed by Alfred Russell Wallace and Talk Darwin, the one that allowed understanding the way as the living organisms are evolve. Then they were the brilliant Francis Crick and James Watson who discovered the curvilinear molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and then it was the great explosion of the molecular biology. The cancer, illness that wakes up our deepest fears, is analyzed in this article from an evolutionary conception that could give us a road but appropriate to understand it and maybe to guide us toward better therapeutic options
[en] Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper
[en] Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy; it accounts for approximately 1% of all new case of cancer each year, and its incidence has increased significantly over the last few decades. The majority of thyroid tumors originate from follicular epithelial cells. Among them, papillary (Ptc) and follicular carcinomas (Ftc) represent the most common forms of differentiated thyroid cancer and account for approximately 80% and 15% of all cases, respectively. Specific genetic lesions are associated to each thyroid tumor histotype: BRAF mutations and Ret/Ptc and TRK oncogenes have been detected in Ptc, whereas Ftc is characterized by PAX8/PPARg rearrangements and Ras mutations. In this review we summarize studies on the molecular biology of the differentiated thyroid tumors, with particular interest in the associated genetic lesions and their role in thyroid carcinogenesis. We also report recent findings on gene expression and mi RNA profiles of Ptc and Ftc.
[en] We analyzed 15 cases of head and neck cancer (13 out of 15 were squqmous cell cancer.) by Southern blotting to identify the possible tumor suppressor gene. Firstly we searched the chromosome 17p with pYNZ22, pMCT35.1 and p144D6. 5 out of 7 informative cases showed loss of heterozygosity implying the loss of tumor suppressor gene near those loci. Afterwards analysis of these 5 cases is needed to identify the presence of tumor suppressor genes and the oncogenetic mechanism. (Author)
[en] The conformation of the 11-membered ring of the lathyrane skeleton has been investigated using NMR spectra and theoretical calculations. Some other skeletons, such as jatrophane, jatrapholane, and tigliane, seem to be derived from this framework, and the conformation is important in connection with the configuration of the resultant diterpenes. The conformation of lathyrane is principally defined by the orientation of the two methyl groups; namely, the methyl groups on C1 and C6 directed above or below the ring plane. Theoretical calculations revealed that the predominant conformation is altered depending on the oxygen functional groups on the ring. As far as the bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles are concerned, all calculation methods afforded reasonable results. In contrast, as regards conformational stability, only the ab initio molecular orbital method (RHF/6-31G*) predicted the most stable conformation, consistent with NOE experiments. On the other hand, the stable conformations predicted by the ab initio method (RHF/STO-3G), the semi-empirical molecular orbital method (MOPAC(PM3)), and the molecular mechanics calculations (MM3) did not necessarily agree with the conformers suggested by the NOE experiments. (author)
[en] The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the field of cancer research has boosted worldwide efforts of genome-wide personalized oncology aiming at identifying predictive biomarkers and novel actionable targets. Despite considerable progress in understanding the molecular biology of distinct cancer entities by the use of this revolutionary technology and despite contemporaneous innovations in drug development, translation of NGS findings into improved concepts for cancer treatment remains a challenge. The aim of this article is to describe shortly the NGS platforms for DNA sequencing and in more detail key achievements and unresolved hurdles. A special focus will be given on potential clinical applications of this innovative technique in the field of radiation oncology