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[en] The weeds are alternative hosts of begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which facilitate their persistence and propagation to crops of agronomic interest, such as tomatoes. The objective of this investigation was to obtain the complete genome of a bipartite begomovirus found in Amaranthus dubius, Rivina humilis, Rhynchosia minima, Desmodium sp. and Caesalpinia sp., which were collected in tomato crops in Ginebra and Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. The genome of the begomovirus was obtained using rolling circle amplification and digestion with the enzymes EcoRI and EcoRV, which cut the genomic component A and B, respectively. These fragments were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. Finally, the presence of this begomovirus in all weeds was verified by specific PCR. Three EcoRI clones and five EcoRV clones were obtained. The fragments carrying components A and B have a size of 2 584 and 2 543 nt, respectively. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the begomoviral A genome with other previously reported begomoviruses showed the highest identity (90.9 %) with the Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus Yucatan. Based on the current demarcation criterion for the Begomovirus species established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the geminivirus isolated from the weeds A. dubius, R. humilis, R. minima, Desmodium sp. and Caesalpinia sp., constitutes a new begomoviral species. Based on the symptoms observed in the field, the name of the Rhynchosia golden mosaic Colombia virus is proposed to designate this new species.
[en] Present study is an attempt to estimate the genetic diversity of important macro fungi from district Astore using DNA based markers. The Province Gilgit-Baltistab represents a floristically rich area characterized by the moist and dry temperate forest region with rich macro fungal diversity. During the field visits from March to August selected different localities of Astore were visited and collection was done and subsequently identified macro fungal species on the basis of morphological and molecular characteristics viz., Bjerkandra adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Rigidoporus ulmarius and Tremetes versicolor were reported first time from Pakistan. Another ten species viz., Lepiota sistrata, Krombholziella scabra, Suillus leutus, Inocybe agardhii, Cyathus olla, Phallus impedicus, Schizophylum commune, Coprinus domesticus, Morchella esculenta and M. conica were reported first time from the study area. The fourteen fungal species were attended by eleven Randomly Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) DNA primers. Bivariate data was used to estimate genetic diversity in different fourteen fungal accessions using unpaired group of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) procedure. High level genetic diversity ranging from 40% to 80% was observed in the fungal species. Samples of accessions were also grouped in to 7 clusters using dendrogram analysis. (author)
[en] The ampelographic and genetic analysis of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes is important for their breeding or any crop improvement program. This information has proved significantly helpful in maintaining germplasm and to develop new superior genotypes by selecting suitable planting material. This study revealed the morphological (qualitative & quantitative) traits and genetic diversity for 30 grapes genotypes, which were collected from Potohar (salt range) region of Pakistan. The data information for ampelographic (qualitative & quantitative) traits were recorded for consecutive 3 years and data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) method. Further, twelve SSR markers were used for grapes genotyping. Two SSR primers VVS4 and VVMD25 showed monomorphism in these genotypes while remaining ten SSR primers VVMD7, VVMD24, VMC4H6, VrZAG21, VVMD32, VrZAG25, VrZAG79, VMC4F3, VMC4A1 and VrZAG62 showed polymorphism in 30 grapes genotypes. The highest PIC value and maximum number of alleles were observed in primers VMC4A1, VVMD32 and VrZAG62. The result also identified a synonym genotype which showed 95.83% similarity between genotypes, BRI-001 and Sundar Khani. The Euclidean distance metric and the Ward’s agglomeration method were used in an unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of all cultivars. This cluster analysis divided the genotyped into two main groups having further classes and subclasses between them, which revealed high potential for specific breeding goals. Hence, these data could be used for protection or patenting processes of existing or new grapes cultivars. The ampelographic and genetic analysis of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes is important for their breeding or any crop improvement program. This information has proved significantly helpful in maintaining germplasm and to develop new superior genotypes by selecting suitable planting material. This study revealed the morphological (qualitative & quantitative) traits and genetic diversity for 30 grapes genotypes, which were collected from Potohar (salt range) region of Pakistan. The data information for ampelographic (qualitative and quantitative) traits were recorded for consecutive 3 years and data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) method. Further, twelve SSR markers were used for grapes genotyping. Two SSR primers VVS4 and VVMD25 showed monomorphism in these genotypes while remaining ten SSR primers VVMD7, VVMD24, VMC4H6, VrZAG21, VVMD32, VrZAG25, VrZAG79, VMC4F3, VMC4A1 and VrZAG62 showed polymorphism in 30 grapes genotypes. The highest PIC value and maximum number of alleles were observed in primers VMC4A1, VVMD32 and VrZAG62. The result also identified a synonym genotype which showed 95.83% similarity between genotypes, BRI-001 and Sundar Khani. The Euclidean distance metric and the Ward’s agglomeration method were used in an unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of all cultivars. This cluster analysis divided the genotyped into two main groups having further classes and subclasses between them, which revealed high potential for specific breeding goals. Hence, these data could be used for protection or patenting processes of existing or new grapes cultivars. (author)
[en] Maize is important cereal crop which is used a major source of dietary ingredients. Due to implementation of Plant Breeders Rights, plant variety protection is absolute necessity. Plant variety protection using morphological markers is not a reliable source due to heavy influence of environmental factors. However, DNA fingerprinting using molecular markers is reliable technique as these are unaffected by environment. Present study was carried out for DNA fingerprinting of 08 maize genotypes comprising of 03 hybrids and 05 parental lines using 209 Simple Sequence Repeat markers. Sixteen SSR markers were not amplified, 19 were found monomorphic and 174 were polymorphic. A sum of 1015 alleles was amplified and 783 were found polymorphic. Maximum number of alleles (21) was recorded for umc1676, maximum number of polymorphic alleles (16) were recorded for p-Phi008. Polymorphic Information Content values ranged from 0.0 (umc1179) to 0.94 (umc1676) with an average 0.67. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient was used to construct a dendrogram based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and SAHN clustering. Maize hybrids and parental lines were classified to 03 clusters i.e. Group I, II and III on 96% similarity coefficient. DNA fingerprints were also developed for identification of maize hybrids as well as parental lines which will be useful for variety protection in future. (author)
[en] Many sessile marine invertebrates have life cycles involving the development of larvae that settle on specific substrates to initiate metamorphosis to juvenile forms. Although is recognized that bacterial biofilms play a role in this process, the responsible chemical cues are beginning to be investigated. Here, we tested the role of substrate-specific bacteria biofilms and their Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecule (QSSM) extracts on chemotaxis and settlement of larvae from Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a hydroid that grows on gastropod shells occupied by hermit crabs. We isolated and taxonomically identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, 14 bacterial strains from shells having H. symbiolongicarpus. Three isolates, Shigella flexneri, Microbacterium liquefaciens, and Kocuria erythromyxa, were identified to produce QSSMs using biosensors detecting N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones. Multispecies biofilms and QSSM extracts from these bacteria showed a positive chemotactic effect on H. symbiolongicarpus larvae, a phenomenon not observed with mutant strains of E. coli and Chromobacterium violaceum that are unable to produce QSSMs. These biofilms and QSSMs extracts induced high rates of larval attachment, although only 1 % of the attached larvae metamorphosed to primary polyps, in contrast to 99 % of larvae incubated with CsCl, an artificial inductor of attachment and metamorphosis. These observations suggest that bacterial QSSMs participate in H. symbiolongicarpus substrate selection by inducing larval chemotaxis and attachment. Furthermore, they support the notion that settlement in cnidarians is decoupled into two processes, attachment to the substrate and metamorphosis to a primary polyp, where QSSMs likely participate in the former but not in the latter.
[en] The diagnosis of cervical mass is a challenge due to the wide variety of benign and malignant etiologies. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC) are rare entities, and those tumours arising as a primary cervical, especially in the thyroid gland, are exceedingly rare. As others small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, the disease has an aggressive behavior. This case report is about a 40-years-old female patient admitted to the Hospital Felício Rocho, with airway compression caused by a cervical mass originated in the thyroid gland. The data were extracted from the medical records and information provided by the attendants. We describe here the multidisciplinary approach used to treat the patient as well as her outcome. We also review the clinical and molecular aspects of this rare entity. (author)
[en] Cotton is an essential fiber and oilseed crop cultivated in semi-dry to arid atmosphere rage in various parts of the world. For a successful breeding program, it is of extreme significance for the plant breeders to have knowledge of genetic variability present in the breeding material. Therefore, present investigations were carried out to make sense of genetic relatedness and differences on the basis of morphological traits (tap root length, lateral root number and root volume) and molecular markers (SSR) among 30 upland Bt cotton genotypes developed by public and private sector. Results of morphological data indicated that maximum Tap root length, lateral root numbers and root volume were recorded for genotypes BH-178, BH-180 and CIM- 602 respectively. So, these genotypes may be used in breeding program to improve respective trait. Meanwhile for molecular study Out of 40 markers, 20 were found polymorphic among 30 genotypes. Total number of alleles opened up by these markers were 116 while 90 were found polymorphic demonstrating 22% genetic diversity with 4.50 alleles for each locus on an average. Dendrogram demonstrated a most extreme range of closeness from 78 to 98%. Least likeness (78%) was seen among the lines FH-142 and TARZAN-1, though, most extreme (98 %) was seen between the lines FH-113 and FH-114. It is direly expected to incorporate exotic cotton germplasm to expand magnitude of genetic variability which may bring improvement in seed cotton yield and other economic traits in cotton crop. (author)
[en] In a de novo physicochemical modeling, the synthesis of biologically important sugars and other chiral compounds without any chemical initiators is demonstrated for the first time by photolysis of a concentrated formaldehyde solution and subsequent condensation of the product; chiral condensed phase detected; the splitting of enantiomers in terms of chirality sign at the moment of condensation is determined; hierarchical (three-level) helical structure of the optically active anisometric phase (strings) is detected, in which the strings of a larger diameter consists of helically plaited strings of a smaller diameter; it was found that the direction of twisting of the strings when they are helically plaited from the strings of the previous hierarchical level is determined by their supramolecular chirality (the sign of an excess of the left or right helical supramolecular submicroscopic structures); it was shown that structure formation in systems similar to prebiological may occur through the mechanism of supercoiling already in an aqueous solution of sugars with molecular weights μ of ~102 Da, that is, much earlier than linear chiral macromolecules are formed. The results are obtained under conditions that correspond to modern ideas about the form and vector of prebiological evolution, and therefore may be of fundamental importance for molecular biology.
[en] During exposure to stress, betaine content was reported to increase in maize (Zea mays L.), but the exact mechanism of this increase is not clearly understood. In the current study, we attempted to identify a novel betaine transporter gene and investigated the expression patterns under salt and drought stresses. The betaine transporter gene, ZmBetProt, was cloned by RACE technique from Maize, which covered 1538 bp with a 1299 bp open reading frame encoding 432 amino acids, protein molecular weight was 46.986 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.90.The Bet/ProT homologous genes were obtained from various plant species. The highest similarity was observed with proline transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtProT3). Under salt stress, betaine gene expression was not induced significantly, but induced significantly under mannitol stress. Full-length sequence data for cDNA of the betaine transporter gene was submitted to the GenBank with accession number: KX013323.1. This study is designed to provide in-depth understanding of the roles of ZmBetProt in regulation of betaine transporter under abiotic stress. (author)