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[en] Head smut can cause maize yield losses of up to 80% in the maize-growing region of Northern China. Molecular markers based on candidate resistance genes have proved to be useful for highly sensitive selection of resistance in maize breeding programs. In the present study, a SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) in resistant and susceptible maize lines was identified within the nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene GRMZM2G047152 in bin 8.03. Using this SNP, we developed the derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker DNdCAPS8.03-1. The molecular coincidence rate of the combination of markers DNdCAPS8.03-1 and LSdCAP2 (related to the QTL qHS2.09) was higher than that of a single marker in a set of 56 inbred maize lines belonging to five heterotic groups. These results provide information and tools that will prove to be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding maize for head smut resistance. (author)
[en] Sequencing is a fundamental component in the life science research. Sanger method known as first-generation sequencing technologies (FGSTs) was the first successful sequencing method introduced in 1977. Considering time and financial advantage, second-generation technology was introduced in 2005 which is also called as next-generation sequencing technologies (NGSTs). These technologies have significantly high throughput compared with FGSTs, and make break through revolution in the study of genomics and molecular biology. To overcome the mandatory sample amplification regarding the read length and the bias of the NGSTs, third-generation sequencing technologies (TGSTs) were introduced. Third-generation long-range sequencing and mapping approaches are making a renaissance in high quality genome sequencing. The recent developments of the fourth generation sequencing methods hold great promises and expect to offer most important contribution in these key areas. Currently, NGSTs use most of the genomics field, third-, and fourth-generation approaches make a significant solution in the genomics era. Wheat is one the major crop species which is closely related with the development of agriculture and straighten of societies. The demands of wheat are increasing day by day which necessitate improvement of wheat genomics and functional genomics. Wheat yield has been accelerated by the advances of NGSTs that focused genome sequencing, genomic polymorphism, genes cloning and development of technical platforms. This review discussed about the development of sequencing technologies, wheat development through NGSTs and future outlook. This review is mostly targeted for the beginners (new students/ researchers) who have intended to work with NGSTs. (author)
[en] Hoya lamthanhiae V.T. Pham and Kloppenb. is described and illustrated. The molecular data is provided; this species was found in Dak Lak province, southern Vietnam. Diagnostic features of the new species are a milky latex lithophytic vine and pure white with red-purple centre flowers. The described species clearly differs from closely related H. hainanensis in number of characters: a leaf blade shortly attenuated and wavy margins at the base, a hairy abaxial leaf surface, a bigger calyx with few sparse hairs or glabrous, a bigger corolla with acute lobe, shorter pollinia, as well as molecular characters. (author)
[en] Objective: In order to enhance the prognostic benefit of new molecular markers, the aim of this study was to identify possible association of axillary lymph node (ALN) status and pN with clinicopathological characteristics and expression of EZH2 and CD44 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Methods: The investigation included 106 patients with IDC who had undergone radical mastectomy at the Clinic of Endocrine Surgery in Nis. Clinicopathologic parameters and immunohistochemical expression of EZH2 and CD44 in primary IDC were investigated in relation to ALN status and pN. Results: Our univariate analysis established that T3-T4 stage, high EZH2, and high EZH2 with ER- were associated with ALN metastasis (p=0.014; 0.003; 0.013). Decreased probability for ALN involvement was found with T1 stage, and low EZH2 with ER+ (p=0.032; 0.022). Multivariant analysis established that high EZH2 in cancer cells was associated with high risk for ALN metastases (p=0.004); T1 tumors were associated with low risk (p=0.037). Higher pN was associated with high EZH2, high EZH2 with ER-, as well as an advanced clinical and disease stage (p=0.006; 0.001; p=0.002, 0.001). Lower pN was associated with ER+, and ER+ with low EZH2 (p= 0.004; 0.012). CD44 was not associated with ALN involvement, nor with pN. Conclusions: This study revealed association of EZH2 with ALN metastases, where disease stage and expression profiles of EZH2 and ER may have affected regional pN. (author)
[en] Redox control is lost when the antioxidant defense system cannot remove abnormally high concentrations of signaling molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chronically elevated levels of ROS cause oxidative stress that may eventually lead to cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on redox effects in the vascular system. We pay close attention to the subcompartments of the vascular system (endothelium, smooth muscle cell layer) and give an overview of how redox changes influence those different compartments. We also review the core aspects of redox biology, cardiovascular physiology, and pathophysiology. Moreover, the topic-specific knowledgebase DES-RedoxVasc was used to develop two case studies, one focused on endothelial cells and the other on the vascular smooth muscle cells, as a starting point to possibly extend our knowledge of redox control in vascular biology. © 2019 The Authors. BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
[en] Objective: To stratify diffuse gliomas into subtypes including diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and glioblastomas based on recent molecular updates and assess their frequencies in our local subpopulation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, from Jun 2015 to Jul 2017 Methodology: Two hundred and fourteen (n=214) cases of adult diffuse gliomas were evaluated. Clinical and morphological features like age, gender and type of tumor were quantified. Molecular studies including IDH 1 by antibody and PCR, ATRX by antibody and 1p/19q co-deletion by FISH were tested. Gliomas were subcategorised based on WHO 2016 guidelines. Results: Mean age of presentation was 39 years. Overall n=146/214 (68.2%) of the cases were completely classifiable including Diffuse Astrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas and Glioblastomas. Out of the glioblastomas (n=81), 67/81(n=82.7%) were IDH Wild type and 14/81 (17.3%) were IDH Mutant. Conclusion: In this study, glioblastomas are the most frequent gliomas as categorized by current WHO molecular guidelines followed by diffuse astrocytomas. Oligodendrogliomas are the least common. (author)
[en] Smoke produced by fire is an important environmental stimulus that plays a major role in improving the germination of plant species, including crops. However, smoke induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in seed germination during imbibition remains unknown. Here, we explored the physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in the rice seed imbibed for 48 h in smoke-water (1:500 and 1:1000 dilutions (v/v)) , Gibberellic acid (GA3)(50 and 100µM) and Abscisic acid (ABA) (5 and 10µM). Increased the smoke concentration showed a significant increase in the germination percentage. It was also observed that smoke (1:1000) and GA3 (100µM) treated seeds had more water uptake as compared to other treatments. Interestingly smoke (1:1000) significantly induced carbohydrate, protein and lipid level of the imbibed seeds. However, macro and micro elements concentrations were decreased in seeds treated with smoke, GA3 and ABA as compared with seeds treated with water. Furthermore, the expression of GA3 and ABA responsive cis-elements genes was up-regulated by low or high dilution of smoke during seed imbibition, while the transcript abundance of some genes were up-regulated by GA3 at seedling stage. (author)
[en] An unusual Camellia specimen was noticed during field investigations in Hainan Island. In order to identify the phylogenetic position, the complete chloroplast genome sequences and the DNA barcode gene, matk, of the new species and closely related species were employed. The results confirmed that the new species belonged to Camellia section and had close genetic relationship with C. gauchowensis, C. crapnelliana, C. vietnamensis. The general morphology characters of the new plant species, Camellia hainanica YL Zhao et ZG Xu, sp. nov. were described. The pollen microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscope, then above features were compared with closely phylogenetic related Camellia species. Although morphological details were most similar to C. oleifera, the new species have larger fruit and brown rough pericarp. At the same time, the new species can be differentiated by its morphological characters, such as branchlets, bracteoles, stamens and fruit from other related species. All evidences from the characters of morphology, pollen and molecular phylogeny indicated that the plant was a new species and belonged to Camellia sect. Oleifera. (author)
[en] Three fungal (Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma) species isolated from diseased tomato, maize and wood decayed plants from Iraq were morphologically identified. ITS1 and ITS4 based genetic regions were used for molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship revealed that that Rhizoctonia solani isolates had 99% similarities to Indian, USA and Mexicans isolates. Fusarium solani showed 99% nucleotide identity to Indian, Chinese, Mexicans and Brazilian isolates. Fusarium proliferatum showed >99% nucleotide identity to Asian isolates whereas Trichoderma atroviride showed 99% similarity to Chinese isolates. These identified fungal isolates of F. solani, F. proliferatum and T. atroviride were not previously reported from Iraq and therefore sequences of these fungi were deposited in the GenBank database (NCBI) under the accession numbers KY283953(R. solani), KX000895 (F. solani), KX350051 (F. proliferatum) and KU985151 (T.atroviride) for the first time
[en] Radiopharmacy is a branch of nuclear medicine (NM), which was started in Sudan in 1962 at RICK (Khartoum), 1995 at NCI, Wad Medani. Later, Shendi came to the picture as a third public centre. Now there are 6 NM centres, 3 out of them are public and 3 are private. The public ones are located in Khartoum (capital of Sudan), Wad Medani (NCI is ~196 km south Khartoum) and Shendi (~200km north Khartoum). There are two more centres are coming up, one in Marawe (north Sudan) and the other is in Alobaid (west Sudan). Instruments available, functions and size: all the centres are equipped with SPECT gamma cameras, dose calibrators. The functions and size of radiopharmacy units in Sudan are different from one to another. In RICK, there are an oncology department, NM department, and medical laboratories for general investigations. In NCI there are 6 departments on oncology, NM, radiology, medical physics, laboratories and blood bank, and molecular biology. In Shendi there are oncology and NM departments.