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[en] The structural analysis of glycoproteins is a challenging endeavor and is under steadily increasing demand, but only a very limited number of labs have the expertise required to accomplish this task. This tutorial is aimed at researchers from the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry that have discovered that glycoproteins are important in their biological research and are looking for the tools to elucidate their structure. It provides brief descriptions of the major and most common analytical techniques used in glycomics and glycoproteomics analysis, including explanations of the rationales for individual steps and references to published literature containing the experimental details necessary to carry out the analyses. Glycomics includes the comprehensive study of the structure and function of the glycans expressed in a given cell or organism along with identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases. Glycoproteomics which is subset of both glycomics and proteomics is the identification and characterization of proteins bearing carbohydrates as posttranslational modification. This tutorial is designed to ease entry into the glycomics and glycoproteomics field for those without prior carbohydrate analysis experience.
[en] To study the relationship between the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, type 18, the expression of survivin, and the mutation of p53 gene in lung squamous carcinoma tissue for the research of pathogenesis of lung carcinoma.This study was carried out at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Xiangfan Central Hospital of Hubei Province, China from September 2008 to May 2010. Forty-five specimens of lung squamous carcinoma tissue confirmed by histopathology were the excisional specimens taken by the Thoracic Surgery of Xiangfan Central Hospital. Normal tissue, closely adjacent to the fresh carcinoma specimens, was used as the control group for p53 gene mutation analysis. Sixteen surgical excisional specimens of benign lung disease were used as a control group of non-carcinomatous diseases. Human papillomavirus DNA were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we used the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism-ethidium bromide (PCR-SSCP-EB) method to detect the mutations of the p53 gene. The expression of the survivin gene was detected by immunohistochemistry methods. Approximately 68.9% of 45 lung squamous carcinoma tissue had p53 gene mutations. The mutation rate of exon 5-8 p53 were 15.6%, 17.8%, 15.6% and 20%. Approximately 42.2% of lung squamous cell carcinoma samples were shown to be positive for HPV DNA expression and 62.2% were positive for survivin expression. There was an inverse correlation between the presence of HPV infections and mutations of p53 gene; and the mutations of p53 gene and expression of survivin had a positive relationship. Mutation of p53 gene and HPV infection may facilitate each other in the generation of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal expression of the survivin gene may take part in the onset and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma (Author).
[en] The centenary of the birth of polymath Erwin Schrodinger was marked by a suitably multidisciplinary conference in April at London's Imperial College, reflecting the impact of the man's work on physics, chemistry, molecular biology and the history and philosophy of science