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[en] The weeds are alternative hosts of begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which facilitate their persistence and propagation to crops of agronomic interest, such as tomatoes. The objective of this investigation was to obtain the complete genome of a bipartite begomovirus found in Amaranthus dubius, Rivina humilis, Rhynchosia minima, Desmodium sp. and Caesalpinia sp., which were collected in tomato crops in Ginebra and Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. The genome of the begomovirus was obtained using rolling circle amplification and digestion with the enzymes EcoRI and EcoRV, which cut the genomic component A and B, respectively. These fragments were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. Finally, the presence of this begomovirus in all weeds was verified by specific PCR. Three EcoRI clones and five EcoRV clones were obtained. The fragments carrying components A and B have a size of 2 584 and 2 543 nt, respectively. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the begomoviral A genome with other previously reported begomoviruses showed the highest identity (90.9 %) with the Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus Yucatan. Based on the current demarcation criterion for the Begomovirus species established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the geminivirus isolated from the weeds A. dubius, R. humilis, R. minima, Desmodium sp. and Caesalpinia sp., constitutes a new begomoviral species. Based on the symptoms observed in the field, the name of the Rhynchosia golden mosaic Colombia virus is proposed to designate this new species.
[en] Head smut can cause maize yield losses of up to 80% in the maize-growing region of Northern China. Molecular markers based on candidate resistance genes have proved to be useful for highly sensitive selection of resistance in maize breeding programs. In the present study, a SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) in resistant and susceptible maize lines was identified within the nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene GRMZM2G047152 in bin 8.03. Using this SNP, we developed the derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker DNdCAPS8.03-1. The molecular coincidence rate of the combination of markers DNdCAPS8.03-1 and LSdCAP2 (related to the QTL qHS2.09) was higher than that of a single marker in a set of 56 inbred maize lines belonging to five heterotic groups. These results provide information and tools that will prove to be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding maize for head smut resistance. (author)
[en] Present study is an attempt to estimate the genetic diversity of important macro fungi from district Astore using DNA based markers. The Province Gilgit-Baltistab represents a floristically rich area characterized by the moist and dry temperate forest region with rich macro fungal diversity. During the field visits from March to August selected different localities of Astore were visited and collection was done and subsequently identified macro fungal species on the basis of morphological and molecular characteristics viz., Bjerkandra adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Rigidoporus ulmarius and Tremetes versicolor were reported first time from Pakistan. Another ten species viz., Lepiota sistrata, Krombholziella scabra, Suillus leutus, Inocybe agardhii, Cyathus olla, Phallus impedicus, Schizophylum commune, Coprinus domesticus, Morchella esculenta and M. conica were reported first time from the study area. The fourteen fungal species were attended by eleven Randomly Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) DNA primers. Bivariate data was used to estimate genetic diversity in different fourteen fungal accessions using unpaired group of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) procedure. High level genetic diversity ranging from 40% to 80% was observed in the fungal species. Samples of accessions were also grouped in to 7 clusters using dendrogram analysis. (author)
[en] Sequencing is a fundamental component in the life science research. Sanger method known as first-generation sequencing technologies (FGSTs) was the first successful sequencing method introduced in 1977. Considering time and financial advantage, second-generation technology was introduced in 2005 which is also called as next-generation sequencing technologies (NGSTs). These technologies have significantly high throughput compared with FGSTs, and make break through revolution in the study of genomics and molecular biology. To overcome the mandatory sample amplification regarding the read length and the bias of the NGSTs, third-generation sequencing technologies (TGSTs) were introduced. Third-generation long-range sequencing and mapping approaches are making a renaissance in high quality genome sequencing. The recent developments of the fourth generation sequencing methods hold great promises and expect to offer most important contribution in these key areas. Currently, NGSTs use most of the genomics field, third-, and fourth-generation approaches make a significant solution in the genomics era. Wheat is one the major crop species which is closely related with the development of agriculture and straighten of societies. The demands of wheat are increasing day by day which necessitate improvement of wheat genomics and functional genomics. Wheat yield has been accelerated by the advances of NGSTs that focused genome sequencing, genomic polymorphism, genes cloning and development of technical platforms. This review discussed about the development of sequencing technologies, wheat development through NGSTs and future outlook. This review is mostly targeted for the beginners (new students/ researchers) who have intended to work with NGSTs. (author)
[en] Five local rice cultivars (Oryza sativa, L.); Sakha 101 (SK 101), Sakha 102 (Sk 102), Sakha 103 (Sk 103), Giza 177 (Gz 177) and Egyptian Jasmine (E. Jas), in addition, eight mutant rice genotypes in M6 generation; Egy 22, Egy 23, Egy 24, Egy 202, Egy 32, Egy 33, Egy 34 and Egy 316 were used in this study. These genotypes were used to evaluate yield-related traits, cooking and eating quality traits, aroma content and blast disease resistance. Egy 316 (111 days) was earlier than other genotypes and recorded the highest 1000 grain weight (32.7 g), while the mutant Egy 202 revealed the maximum number of panicles/m2. Maximum grain yield (4.67 ton/fed.) was recorded by Egy 22, and was the strongest aromatic genotype. While Gz 177 showed the highest head rice percentage (HR%) followed by Egy 24. On the other hand, the highest amylose content percentage (AC%) was recorded by Egy 23 (25.3 %). Under natural and artificial infection of blast disease all studied genotypes were resistant except Sk 101. Thirty two SSRs primers were used to detect early maturing, high tillering, aroma content and blast disease resistance. a- The sizes of SSRs fragments ranged from 50-2917 bp. The total number of amplified bands were 69 bands, while the total number of polymorphic bands, 67, representing 97 % polymorphism. The RM 125 primer showed divided the 13 genotypes into two groups according to grain shape, while RM 135 showed one unique positive marker on the high tillering mutant (Egy 202)
[en] Hoya lamthanhiae V.T. Pham and Kloppenb. is described and illustrated. The molecular data is provided; this species was found in Dak Lak province, southern Vietnam. Diagnostic features of the new species are a milky latex lithophytic vine and pure white with red-purple centre flowers. The described species clearly differs from closely related H. hainanensis in number of characters: a leaf blade shortly attenuated and wavy margins at the base, a hairy abaxial leaf surface, a bigger calyx with few sparse hairs or glabrous, a bigger corolla with acute lobe, shorter pollinia, as well as molecular characters. (author)
[en] Objective: In order to enhance the prognostic benefit of new molecular markers, the aim of this study was to identify possible association of axillary lymph node (ALN) status and pN with clinicopathological characteristics and expression of EZH2 and CD44 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Methods: The investigation included 106 patients with IDC who had undergone radical mastectomy at the Clinic of Endocrine Surgery in Nis. Clinicopathologic parameters and immunohistochemical expression of EZH2 and CD44 in primary IDC were investigated in relation to ALN status and pN. Results: Our univariate analysis established that T3-T4 stage, high EZH2, and high EZH2 with ER- were associated with ALN metastasis (p=0.014; 0.003; 0.013). Decreased probability for ALN involvement was found with T1 stage, and low EZH2 with ER+ (p=0.032; 0.022). Multivariant analysis established that high EZH2 in cancer cells was associated with high risk for ALN metastases (p=0.004); T1 tumors were associated with low risk (p=0.037). Higher pN was associated with high EZH2, high EZH2 with ER-, as well as an advanced clinical and disease stage (p=0.006; 0.001; p=0.002, 0.001). Lower pN was associated with ER+, and ER+ with low EZH2 (p= 0.004; 0.012). CD44 was not associated with ALN involvement, nor with pN. Conclusions: This study revealed association of EZH2 with ALN metastases, where disease stage and expression profiles of EZH2 and ER may have affected regional pN. (author)
[en] Maize is important cereal crop which is used a major source of dietary ingredients. Due to implementation of Plant Breeders Rights, plant variety protection is absolute necessity. Plant variety protection using morphological markers is not a reliable source due to heavy influence of environmental factors. However, DNA fingerprinting using molecular markers is reliable technique as these are unaffected by environment. Present study was carried out for DNA fingerprinting of 08 maize genotypes comprising of 03 hybrids and 05 parental lines using 209 Simple Sequence Repeat markers. Sixteen SSR markers were not amplified, 19 were found monomorphic and 174 were polymorphic. A sum of 1015 alleles was amplified and 783 were found polymorphic. Maximum number of alleles (21) was recorded for umc1676, maximum number of polymorphic alleles (16) were recorded for p-Phi008. Polymorphic Information Content values ranged from 0.0 (umc1179) to 0.94 (umc1676) with an average 0.67. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient was used to construct a dendrogram based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and SAHN clustering. Maize hybrids and parental lines were classified to 03 clusters i.e. Group I, II and III on 96% similarity coefficient. DNA fingerprints were also developed for identification of maize hybrids as well as parental lines which will be useful for variety protection in future. (author)
[en] Retinal synthetic functions are adjusted by various neurotransmitters(e.g.,γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and σ receptor) and can be visualized through nuclear receptor imaging. This technology has rapidly advanced in recent years with the development of nuclear medical equipment and agents. Retinal receptor imaging has become a pioneer medical technique that combines molecular biology, nuclear medicine, and ophthalmology. This article provides a brief introduction on the latest advances in retinal neurotransmitters and describes recent studies on retinal receptor molecular imaging. (authors)
[en] Redox control is lost when the antioxidant defense system cannot remove abnormally high concentrations of signaling molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chronically elevated levels of ROS cause oxidative stress that may eventually lead to cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on redox effects in the vascular system. We pay close attention to the subcompartments of the vascular system (endothelium, smooth muscle cell layer) and give an overview of how redox changes influence those different compartments. We also review the core aspects of redox biology, cardiovascular physiology, and pathophysiology. Moreover, the topic-specific knowledgebase DES-RedoxVasc was used to develop two case studies, one focused on endothelial cells and the other on the vascular smooth muscle cells, as a starting point to possibly extend our knowledge of redox control in vascular biology. © 2019 The Authors. BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.