Results 1 - 10 of 1910
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[en] Between 2002 and 2003, an outbreak of a trout's mass death occurred at the intensive fish culture a Peruvian rural town (Marcara, Huaraz, Peru) where 15,000 from 20,000 fish died. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the high mortality of the trout biomass occurred in period of two months. This study was conducted after the peak of the outbreak has occurred. We collected samples of fishes, water and fish foodstuff which were examined for aflatoxin, metals, toxics and bacteria. We interviewed people who administered the feed pellet. Feed sample preparation, transport and storage. The processing of fish feed was at room temperature which was below 16 deg C. Once prepared the diet it was keep under an appropriate room for a few days before sending to Marcara town. Fishes. 20,000 immature trout larval of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was acquired from an official Peruvian fish culture. The fishes were fed twice a day. Adjusted of feed ration was based from the monthly sample weight. Pellet sample analysis. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxin Bl (AFB1) according to the method previously published. The sensitivity is 0.1 μg per 1 kg of sample. During the fish development until the peak of the outbreak, the foodstuff to fishes was maintained in plastic bags. At this time the storage room temperature was 18-20 deg. C between 1.00-2.00 P.M. and the humidity rose close to 90 % at the Marcara facilities. Mortality development and Effect on survival. The fishes maintained in 4 pods had a normal surviving until end of November, less than 10 specimen dead by month. The fish outbreaks started the first week of December and continuing until the fourth week of January totalizing 15,000 dead fish from 20,000. The survival of the fish at the first month was less than 50 %. The mortality continues throughout January totalizing 15,000 dead fish and leaving only 25% survival. Laboratory data. The collected samples for analysis were frozen and transported in dry ice to the analysis laboratory. We took the samples on January 23 and it was analyzed on January 25. Aflatoxin Bl was detected in three samples of fish muscle and in the 3 samples of fish feed but it was negative in the 3 water samples. The AFB1 concentration was 10 times in the fish feed than in the fish muscle. In spite of heavy metal residues (lead, mercury and arsenic) were found in the fish samples, those concentrations were below the permissible levels. Volatile toxic residues were negative in water, fish and feed. Only the fish feed samples were contaminated by bacteria (Staphylococcus aureaus). Under favourable conditions of temperature and humidity, the Aspergillus flavus grows on certain foods and feeds, resulting in the production of aflatoxin Bl. For the trout, the highest admissible amount of AFBI in feed is 0.1 μg per kg. The data showed suggest that an improper handling of fish foodstuff (18-20 deg. C and 90 % humidity) was the cause growing of mould and/or spores and consequently it produced an increased concentration of AFBI in fish feed. Liver is strategically located between intestinal tract and general circulation. As AFBI concentration ranged in liver between 10 and 100 ppb, this level is capable to produce an acute hepatotoxicity in the fish stocks. (author)
[en] The purpose of this research is study of frequency dynamics and infants's mortality depending on congenital disease of development in the Semipalatinsk region during 1982-1995. The predominance of congenital disease of developments: - of central nervous system, - of cardiovascular system;, - of digestion organs were discovered
[en] This paper provides the estimate of cancer mortality caused by high-level radiation exposure. The method to estimate it is life table method. Throughout this method, we can obtain the lifetime and age-conditional probability of developing or dying of cancer. Moreover we can see the loss of rest of life. We obtain the result that the excess cancer mortality risk is not so serious. (author)
[en] Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71–3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.
[en] Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of childhood death and disability worldwide. In the United States, childhood head trauma results in approximately 3,000 deaths, 50,000 hospitalizations, and 650,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. Children presenting to the ED with seemingly minor head trauma account for approximately one-half of children with documented TBIs. Despite the frequency and importance of childhood minor head trauma, there exists no highly accurate, reliable and validated clinical scoring system or prediction rule for assessing risk of TBI among those with minor head trauma. At the same time, use of CT scanning in these children in recent years has increased substantially. The major benefit of CT scanning is early identification (and treatment) of TBIs that might otherwise be missed and result in increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Unnecessary CT imaging, however, exposes the child needlessly to the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. What constitutes appropriate criteria for obtaining CT scans in children after minor blunt head trauma remains controversial. Current evidence to guide clinicians in this regard is limited; however, large studies performed in multi-center research networks have recently been conducted. These studies should provide the foundation of evidence to guide CT decisions by clinicians, help identify TBIs in a timely fashion, and reduce unnecessary radiation exposure. (orig.)