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[en] Between 2002 and 2003, an outbreak of a trout's mass death occurred at the intensive fish culture a Peruvian rural town (Marcara, Huaraz, Peru) where 15,000 from 20,000 fish died. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the high mortality of the trout biomass occurred in period of two months. This study was conducted after the peak of the outbreak has occurred. We collected samples of fishes, water and fish foodstuff which were examined for aflatoxin, metals, toxics and bacteria. We interviewed people who administered the feed pellet. Feed sample preparation, transport and storage. The processing of fish feed was at room temperature which was below 16 deg C. Once prepared the diet it was keep under an appropriate room for a few days before sending to Marcara town. Fishes. 20,000 immature trout larval of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was acquired from an official Peruvian fish culture. The fishes were fed twice a day. Adjusted of feed ration was based from the monthly sample weight. Pellet sample analysis. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxin Bl (AFB1) according to the method previously published. The sensitivity is 0.1 μg per 1 kg of sample. During the fish development until the peak of the outbreak, the foodstuff to fishes was maintained in plastic bags. At this time the storage room temperature was 18-20 deg. C between 1.00-2.00 P.M. and the humidity rose close to 90 % at the Marcara facilities. Mortality development and Effect on survival. The fishes maintained in 4 pods had a normal surviving until end of November, less than 10 specimen dead by month. The fish outbreaks started the first week of December and continuing until the fourth week of January totalizing 15,000 dead fish from 20,000. The survival of the fish at the first month was less than 50 %. The mortality continues throughout January totalizing 15,000 dead fish and leaving only 25% survival. Laboratory data. The collected samples for analysis were frozen and transported in dry ice to the analysis laboratory. We took the samples on January 23 and it was analyzed on January 25. Aflatoxin Bl was detected in three samples of fish muscle and in the 3 samples of fish feed but it was negative in the 3 water samples. The AFB1 concentration was 10 times in the fish feed than in the fish muscle. In spite of heavy metal residues (lead, mercury and arsenic) were found in the fish samples, those concentrations were below the permissible levels. Volatile toxic residues were negative in water, fish and feed. Only the fish feed samples were contaminated by bacteria (Staphylococcus aureaus). Under favourable conditions of temperature and humidity, the Aspergillus flavus grows on certain foods and feeds, resulting in the production of aflatoxin Bl. For the trout, the highest admissible amount of AFBI in feed is 0.1 μg per kg. The data showed suggest that an improper handling of fish foodstuff (18-20 deg. C and 90 % humidity) was the cause growing of mould and/or spores and consequently it produced an increased concentration of AFBI in fish feed. Liver is strategically located between intestinal tract and general circulation. As AFBI concentration ranged in liver between 10 and 100 ppb, this level is capable to produce an acute hepatotoxicity in the fish stocks. (author)
[en] Heat waves may become a serious threat to the health and safety of people who currently live in temperate climates. It was therefore of interest to investigate whether more deprived populations are more vulnerable to heat waves. In order to address the question on a fine geographical scale, the spatial heterogeneity of the excess mortality in France associated with the European heat wave of August 2003 was analysed. A deprivation index and a heat exposure index were used jointly to describe the heterogeneity on the Canton scale (3,706 spatial units). During the heat wave period, the heat exposure index explained 68% of the extra-Poisson spatial variability of the heat wave mortality ratios. The heat exposure index was greater in the most urbanized areas. For the three upper quintiles of heat exposure in the densely populated Paris area, excess mortality rates were twofold higher in the most deprived Cantons (about 20 excess deaths/100,000 people/day) than in the least deprived Cantons (about 10 excess deaths/100,000 people/day). No such interaction was observed for the rest of France, which was less exposed to heat and less heterogeneous in terms of deprivation. Although a marked increase in mortality was associated with heat wave exposure for all degrees of deprivation, deprivation appears to be a vulnerability factor with respect to heat-wave-associated mortality.
[en] Dimlore (662 EC), a mixture of chlorpyriphos and dimethoate insecticide, was tested against the larvae of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Administration of 10 ml of 0.1%, Dimlore per insect resulted in the inhibition of Acetyl choline esterase (AchE) by 57.22% as compared to the control. The topical application of same dose of different concentrations of Dimlore resulted in significant dose dependant mortality after 24h and 48th of treatment. (author)
[en] Maturing female anadromous salmonids receiving surgical intraperitoneally-implanted telemetry transmitters may experience difficulty depositing eggs during natural spawning. We allocated maturing adult steelhead females to three treatments: tags surgically implanted in the body cavity (internal), tags implanted between the skin and muscle tissue (subdermal), and non-tagged, and allowed them to spawn naturally in an experimental channel. Internally tagged females retained significantly more eggs than both the subdermally tagged treatment (P = 0.005) and non-tagged controls (P = 0.001); the subdermal and non-tag controls did not differ significantly (P = 0.934). The internal, subdermal and non-tag treatments retained an average of 49%, 11% and 2% of their eggs, respectively. The onset of sexual activity did not differ significantly among treatments (P = 0.413). Post-spawning mortality was 70% for both internally and subdermally tagged females and 0% for non-tagged females (P <0.01). We suggest that subdermal implantation techniques be considered in future studies during the reproductive period to reduce egg retention caused by internal implantation of transmitters
[en] The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.
[en] Objective: To determine the frequency of three months mortality among patients with less than 8 years of education after acute myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolysis. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from 16 April to 16 Oct 2013. Both male and female patients aged 18 years and above admitted with STEMI fulfilling inclusion criteria, were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of education whether less than or more than 8 years. Patients were subjected to detailed history and clinical examination. All patients were observed for mortality rate in 24 hours and in-hospital mortality (after 24 hours of hospital stay). Remaining patients were followed for 3 months mortality. Results: A total of 482 patients who suffered acute STEMI and were treated with fibrinolysis were studied. The mean age was 60 ±13.81 years . Among these males were 298 (61.8%).The frequency of 24 hours, in hospital and 3 months mortality after STEMI treated with fibrinolysis in Group A(<8 years of education) and Group B(>8 years of education) were 7.5% vs 2.5% , 13.9% vs 4.5% and 16.4 % vs 7.0% respectively. The outcomes were statistically not significant for gender. Conclusion: Level of education is a predictor of mortality after STEMI treated with fibrinolysis. Mortality after acute myocardial infarction is high in less educated patients. (author)
[en] Almost all Thai farmers in the villages raise Thai Native chickens. Chickens are the main protein source in the rural areas. The surplus of chickens can be the additional income for the farmer family. Raising of chickens is commonly in the backyard where chickens can feed on leftover or residuals from the family consumption. Generally people like to eat native chickens because their meat contains less fat and had a good taste. Native chickens are able to use low quality food efficiently and they are more resistant to tropical diseases. Thailand tries to improve native chickens for growth meanwhile maintain good characteristics; tolerance, feeding ability, fertility. Thirty-six farmers in the North part of Thailand were selected for testing of raising chickens, by supporting 5-12 hens per family. Farmers were divided randomly into 3 categories; separation of chicks at birth, at 14 d and allowing chicks to be with hens naturally. Growth performance was recorded together with losses, mortality, consumption and sale of native chickens for a period of 1 year. Hens and chickens were feeding by themselves in the nature. There were 273 hens at the beginning of the experiment and 210 hens at the end. The average body weight of the hens in the village at the first laying was 1.52 kg. The average number of egg clutch was 3.41. A total of 210 hens produced 8,550 eggs, 5,466 chicks in 1 year of the experiment. The hens whose chicks were separated from birth produced 14.8 - 16.4 more chicks per year, 1.2 - 1.4 more clutches of eggs and 19.0 - 22.0 more eggs than group 2 and group 3, respectively. On average, a hen laid 39.14 eggs and produced 24.84 chicks per year. Farmers in this study had 72.03 chickens for consumption per family and 84.47 chickens for sale, which incurred an income of 3,879.82 Baht per family. The expenses involved feed cost and electricity (for incubation) had a value of 1,797.94 Bath. The cash return on average was 2,081.65 Bath per family. When averaging values per hen, number of chicks for consumption in the family was 9.54, number of chicks for sale was 10.88 creating the value of 503.48 Bath per year. Cost and profit from raising chicken were 236.26 and 273.90 Bath per hen per year, respectively. There were 63 millions chickens in Thailand. There were three million families raised the chickens. If chickens are allowed to be with hens naturally a hen can produce 24.84 chicks per year. This will increase more income to farmers. The incomes from raising Thai native chickens very low and there were no or little inputs from farmers. Native chickens can feed on leftover food from human consumption and feed by themselves in the nature from feedstuffs, which are not utilizable by human. This is an efficient way to convert low quality feed into a high quality protein in chicken meat. Moreover, raising native chicken for meat consumption can promote health because of lower fat in chicken meat than conventional broilers. Raising of native chicken can be developed to be a sustainable career for Thai farmers