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[en] Current echocardiographic data reporting the impact of concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR) on outcome in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are conflicting. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, this study aimed to assess the impact of MR severity on cardiac reverse remodeling and patient outcome. 85 patients undergoing TAVR with CMR pre- and 6 m post-TAVR were evaluated. The CMR protocol included cines for left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes, flow assessment, and myocardial scar assessment by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Patients were dichotomised according to CMR severity of MR fraction at baseline (‘non-significant’ vs ‘significant’) and followed up for a median duration of 3 years. Forty-two (49%) patients had ‘significant MR’ at baseline; they had similar LV and RV size and function compared to the ‘non-significant MR’ group but had greater LV mass at baseline. In those with significant MR at baseline, 77% (n = 32) had a reduction in MR post-TAVR, moving them into the ‘non-significant’ category at 6-months, with an overall reduction in MR fraction from 34 to 17% (p < 0.001). Improvement in MR was not associated with more favourable cardiac reverse remodeling when compared with the ‘non-improvers’. Significant MR at baseline was not associated with increased mortality at follow-up. Significant MR is common in patients undergoing TAVR and improves in the majority post-procedure. Improvement in MR was not associated with more favourable LV reverse remodeling and baseline MR severity was not associated with mortality.
[en] Phytoplankton are key components of ecosystems. Their growth is deeply influenced by temperature. In a context of global change, it is important to precisely estimate the impact of temperature on these organisms at different spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the existing deterministic models used to represent the effect of temperature on microbial growth that can be applied to phytoplankton. We first describe and provide a brief mathematical analysis of the models used in constant conditions to reproduce the thermal growth curve. We present the mechanistic assumptions concerning the effect of temperature on the cell growth and mortality, and discuss their limits. The coupling effect of temperature and other environmental factors such as light are then shown. Finally, we introduce the models taking into account the acclimation needed to thrive with temperature variations. The need for new thermal models, coupled with experimental validation, is argued.
Purpose of ReviewDrug-coated balloons (DEB) and drug-eluting stents (DES) emerged as a tool to aid in lowering the rates of neointimal hyperplasia and target lesion restenosis following endovascular peripheral arterial disease (PAD) interventions.
Recent FindingsAlthough the initial trials comparing these devices with non-drug balloons and stents showed favorable results, more recent data raised concerns regarding the mid to long-term safety of these devices.
SummaryIn this review, we will discuss the evolution of endovascular therapy for PAD, with highlights regarding the recent debates on the long-term safety of the drug-coated devices for treatment of PAD.
[en] Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is present in one-third of cancer patients and is associated with a significant mortality risk of 50% within 1 month of diagnosis. We aimed to study the impact and outcomes of HCM in hospitalized patients with solid cancer. We analyzed data captured in the National Inpatient Sample database of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality. The study included all hospitalizations in adult solid cancer patients between January 2012 and September 2015 with hypercalcemia. All encounters associated with HCM were identified using the ICD-9 code (275.42) for hypercalcemia. Encounters with other known causes of hypercalcemia were excluded. The co-primary outcomes were incidence of HCM and inpatient mortality. During the study period, 7,501,209 hospitalizations met our inclusion criteria. Approximately 1.7% (n = 126,875) of these hospitalizations were related to HCM. This corresponds to approximately 1 in 59 solid malignancy associated hospitalizations. The mean age of patients with HCM was 65.7 years; 49% were females; 69% were Caucasians; 73% had metastatic disease and 22% received a palliative care consult. When compared to those without HCM, those hospitalized with HCM had a significantly longer mean hospital length of stay (7.3 days vs. 5.6 days, p < 0.001), higher inpatient mortality (12.3% vs. 5.5%, adjusted OR 1.76 (95% CI 1.69–1.84), p < 0·0001), and a greater likelihood of discharge to other facilities (27.4% vs. 16.2%, p < 0.0001). Although HCM accounts for < 2% of all hospitalizations in patients with solid cancer, those with HCM display higher mortality than those without HCM.
[en] Although MYC proto-oncogene (C-MYC) amplification has been consistently reported to be a potential marker for prostate cancer (PCa) progression and prognosis, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of C-MYC protein expression remains controversial. Overexpression of SOX4 has been shown to play important roles in multiple cancers including PCa. However, the link between these two critical genetic aberrations is unclear. In the current study, we showed that C-MYC was overexpressed in 16.2% (17/105) of Chinese patients with localized PCa. Overexpression of C-MYC was significantly associated with high Gleason scores (P = 0.012) and high Ki67 labeling index (P = 0.005). C-MYC overexpression was correlated with cancer-related mortality and suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in Chinese PCa patients (P = 0.018). Overexpression of C-MYC is associated with SOX4 overexpression in PCa tissues. Notably, SOX4 is a direct target gene of C-MYC; C-MYC activates SOX4 expression via binding to its promoter. In addition, Co-IP analysis demonstrated a physical interaction between C-MYC and SOX4 protein in PCa cells. Clinically, C-MYC+/SOX4+ characterized poor prognosis in a subset of PCa patients. In total, C-MYC overexpression may contribute to PCa progression by activating SOX4. Our findings highlight an important role of C-MYC/SOX4 in PCa progression in a subset of PCa patients.
[en] Marine debris is one of the most significant problems facing the marine environment, endangering wildlife, polluting oceans and is an issue which holds global significance. Plastics constitute a large proportion of marine debris, and their persistence can cause a number of negative consequences for biota and the environment, including entanglement and ingestion, which can lead to mortality. Most plastics never biodegrade and instead break down into smaller pieces which are more difficult to monitor and eventually become so small (micro and nanoplastics), that they are challenging to observe or intercept in the ocean. Marine-based Research Infrastructures (RIs) monitor several environmental parameters and are situated around the globe; however, none of these are routinely monitoring marine debris or plastics. Currently, the only infrastructures in place with regard to marine debris are ‘physical debris interception infrastructure’ in the form of barriers constructed to prevent marine debris from entering the ocean. Several knowledge gaps and restraints exist within current in situ infrastructure including technological immaturity, diverse methodologies and lack of data harmonisation. Nevertheless, marine RIs could monitor microplastics within the water column on a long-term basis and initial steps towards developing technology are promising. (letter)
[en] Serum uric acid (SUA) level was shown in various studies to be related to the presence of coronary artery disease and subsequent cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of SUA with SYNTAX score II (SSII) and the long-term prognosis of patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent percutaneous revascularization due to multivessel disease (MVD) and/or unprotected left main disease (UPLMD). Two-hundred and ninety patients with MVD and/or UPLMD who were treated consecutively with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in the present study. The study population was divided into high SSII (n: 145; SSII > 32.9) and low SSII (n: 145; SSII ≤ 32.9) according to the median SSII value. The SUA value was significantly higher in the high SSII group than in the low SSII group (5.53 ± 1.95 vs. 6.07 ± 1.88; p = 0.001) and was found to be an independent predictor of high SSII (OR 1.306; 95% CI 1.119–1.525; p = 0,001). Twenty-eight patients (9.7%) died during the long-term follow-up, and SUA and SSII were additionally found to be independent predictors of long-term mortality (HR 1.245, 95% CI 1.046–1.482, p = 0.014; HR 1.042, 95% CI 1.007–1.079, p = 0.018, respectively). In the present study, SUA level was demonstrated to be associated with high SSII and long-term mortality in patients with MVD and/or UPLMD who were treated with PCI.
[en] In anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), attention paid mainly to the left ventricle. The predictive significance of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients with anterior STEMI has been frequently neglected. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic effect of RV dysfunction on in-hospital and long-term outcomes in patients with first anterior STEMI. A total of 350 patients without known coronary artery disease with first anterior STEMI and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively enrolled in this study. In-hospital and long-term outcomes were compared between two groups of with or without RV dysfunction. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the RV dysfunction group (26.7% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001). The RV dysfunction group also had a higher incidence of cardiogenic shock, recurrent myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization and stent thrombosis. The 1-year overall survival in patients with and without RV dysfunction was 62.2% and 95.0% respectively. After multivariable analysis, RV dysfunction remained as an independent predictor for in-hospital and long-term mortality. RV dysfunction is an independent predictor of cardiogenic shock, recurrent myocardial infarction, and, in-hospital and long-term mortality in anterior STEMI. Therefore, attention should be paid to the function of right ventricle as in the left ventricle after anterior STEMI.
[en] The advantages of laparoscopic surgery used in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy is wellknown; however, the efficacy of uterine manipulators remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of uterine manipulators in the laparoscopic treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: Overall, 118 patients who underwent laparoscopy due to ectopic pregnancy in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Tepecik Education and Research Hospital between January 2010 and January 2018 and who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Groups of patients undergoing surgery with or without the use of a uterine manipulator were compared in terms of demographic data, operative and postoperative results. Results: No difference was noted between the groups in terms of age, parity, body mass index, smoking, side of ectopic pregnancy mass, previous operations and pregnancy type. However, the size of ectopic pregnancy mass measured by ultrasonography was significantly larger (p = 0.006) and the operation time was significantly shorter (p<0.001) in the group where uterine manipulators were not used than in the uterine manipulator group. Conclusion: We concluded that not using a uterine manipulator in laparoscopic procedures for ectopic pregnancy did not increase operative complications and that operation time was higher in procedures using uterine manipulators. (author)
[en] Severely reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) derived from 2D echocardiographic (2DE) images is associated with increased mortality and used to guide therapeutic choices. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is more sensitive than LVEF to detect abnormal LV function, and accordingly may help identify patients with mildly-to-moderately reduced LVEF who are at a similarly high cardiovascular (CV) risk. We hypothesized that 3D echocardiographic (3DE) measurements of EF and GLS, which are more reliable and reproducible, may have even better predictive value than the 2DE indices, and compared their ability to identify such patients. We retrospectively studied 104 inpatients with 2DE-derived LVEF of 30–50% who underwent transthoracic echocardiography during 2006–2010 period, had good quality images, and were followed-up through 2016. Both 2DE and 3DE images were analyzed to measure LVEF and GLS. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were generated for two subgroups defined by the median of each parameter as the cutoff. Of the 104 patients, 32 died of CV related causes. Cox regression revealed that 3D GLS was the only variable associated with CV mortality. Kaplan–Meier curves showed that 2D LVEF, 2D GLS and 3D EF were unable to differentiate patients at higher CV mortality risk, but 3D GLS was the only parameter to do so. Because 3D GLS is able to identify patients with mildly-to-moderately reduced LVEF who are at higher CV mortality risk, its incorporation into clinical decisions may improve survival of those who would benefit from therapeutic interventions not indicated according to the current guidelines.