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[en] Abstracts are given of the invited papers and shorter contributions. The latter fall into three groups, Solid state and plasma physics, atomic and nuclear physics, and particle physics. (JIW)
[en] The mandate of this Committee, appointed at the request of Parliament, is to make a broad analysis of the safety conditions connected with operation of land-based nuclear power plants and transport, storage and processing, if any, of radioactive materials so as to define the nuclear equipment policy in the 1980s. The analysis will be mainly concentrated on nuclear power but if it wishes, the Committee may make safety-related and environment-related comparisons with other forms of thermal generation. The Committee is composed of 21 members representing the different interested organisations and sectors and its work is scheduled to last approximately 2 years. (NEA)
[fr]Instituee a la demande du Parlement, la Commission pour l'evaluation de la surete des centrales nucleaires a recu pour mission d'effectuer une analyse generale des conditions de surete de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires terrestres ainsi que du transport, du stockage et, le cas echeant, du traitement des matieres radioactives, en vue de permettre de definir la politique d'equipement nucleaire dans les annees 80. Cette analyse ne doit en principe porter que sur l'energie nucleaire. Cependant, si la Commission souhaite se livrer a des comparaisons, sur le plan de la surete comme sur celui des effets sur l'environnement, avec d'autres formes d'energie thermique, elle sera autorisee a le faire. La Commission se compose de 21 membres representant les divers organismes et milieux interesses. Ses travaux devraient durer deux ans
[en] The electricity derivatives market has grown significantly during the last few years. It refers to all commodity derivatives (options, futures and forwards) based on electricity and traded either on the Nord Pool Exchange or bilaterally between single parties. The growth of the derivatives market has also led to an increasing need for relevant regulation and monitoring. In this report ECON describes how the common financial regulations (e.g. Sweden's Securities Operations Act) affect power sector companies and how the electricity derivatives market is being monitored by the Swedish and the Norwegian financial supervisory authorities. The aim of the report is to give ideas about possible future research projects about the electricity derivatives market. In Sweden commodity derivatives based on electricity are generally considered to be 'financial instruments' according to The Trading in Financial Instruments Act. At least this seems to be the case with contracts traded on Nord Pool and bilateral contracts that can be subject to clearing by Nord Pool. In some cases, companies wanting to offer services regarding financial instruments in the Swedish market need a special licence and it comes from the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority. The services that require a special permit are: trading financial instruments, in one's own name, on behalf of another party, brokering of contacts between purchasers and sellers, trading in financial instruments on one's own account, management of another party's financial instruments, and underwriting or other participation in issuances of securities or offers to purchase or sell financial instruments directly to the public. A licence to conduct a securities operation brings with it, among other things, certain mandatory capital requirements. Securities operations should also be conducted in such a manner that public confidence is maintained in the securities markets. Regulation should insure that for example, insider trading is not possible. Today less than ten Swedish power sector companies hold a licence to conduct securities operations, while another five or so have applied for a licence. The Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority is responsible for supervising the securities markets and monitoring compliance. So far, however, the authority seems to have given low priority to the financial part of the electricity market. The European Council Directive on investment services in the securities field does not apply to commodity derivatives. This means that the regulation of the electricity derivatives market differs between European countries. Norway, for instance, has a less strict regulation than Sweden. A major difference is that Norwegian companies that offer commodity derivatives don't need a special licence. ECON ends the report, by listing certain questions that we feel justify further investigation, for example: In what way is competition affected by the fact that different countries within the common Nordic electricity exchange area have different financial regulations? What are the costs of having different financial regulations, in different countries within the common Nordic electricity exchange area? Since Nord Pool in Norway soon will be authorised to act as a securities exchange: What differences are there between Swedish and Norwegian exchange regulations? How do these differences affect Nord Pool? Are there financial contracts traded bilaterally between single parties that are not considered to be financial instruments? If so, what are the consequences? Are there on the Swedish market actors without licences offering investment services of a kind that really should require a licence? Do the monitoring activities of the Swedish and the Norwegian financial supervisory authorities differ in any significant way?
[en] A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)