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[en] Hydrophobicity is known to play a key role in the biological distribution of materials but is often an overlooked parameter when conjugating targeting agents, drugs, and dyes to dendrimers. This review examines the impact of hydrophobic variation in stochastically conjugated dendrimers as well as materials where synthetic methods or approaches to purification provide more controlled samples. Hydrophobic interactions are considered for three general classes: (1) terminal functional group modifications, (2) bioactive small molecules chosen to interact with receptors and proteins as targeting agents and/or drugs, and (3) imaging agents to track biological activity. Impacts on membrane interaction and cellular uptake, biodistribution, interaction with transport proteins, and pharmacokinetics are discussed. The size range of the dendrimers discussed is ~ 1–10 nm.
[en] We present a novel vertex finding technique. The task is formulated as a discrete-continuous optimisation problem in a way similar to the deformable templates approach for the track finding. Unlike the track finding problem, ''elastic hedgehogs'' rather than elastic arms are used as deformable templates. They are initialised by a set of procedures which provide zero level approximation for vertex positions and track parameters at the vertex point. The algorithm was evaluated using the simulated events for the LHC CMS detector and demonstrated good performance. (orig.)
[en] The fast vertex fitting method [P. Billoir and S. Qian, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 311 (1992) 139] has been enhanced by a steering procedure which performs the track selection to insure the vertex fitting quality. Meanwhile, a sign error in a formula in the above publication has been corrected. ((orig.))
[en] Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method
[en] The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few nanometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than the pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters
[en] A search for Q-balls has been carried out in Super-Kamiokande II with 541.7 days of live time. A neutral Q-ball passing through the detector can interact with nuclei to produce pions, generating a signal of successive contained pion events along a track. No candidate for successive contained event groups has been found in Super-Kamiokande II, so we obtain upper limits on the flux of such Q-balls
[en] Highlights: • Gold triangular nanoprisms were synthesized with structurally diverse ‘seeds’. • A nanoparticle-mediated homogeneous nucleation mechanism is proposed. • For some reactions, nanoparticle precursors act as catalysts rather than templates. Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural ‘labels’ to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.
[en] Pixel detectors will be extremely useful in many future experiments. Firstly, due to their very small size, they have a very low intrinsic noise and are thus intrinsically radiation resistant. Secondly, their true 3-D capability improves the tracking efficiency and ghost rejection. They can then be close to the beam axis at the very high planned accelerator luminosities for improved vertexing. Several smart data-driven architectures are being considered for use at LHC and will be tested soon. (orig.)
[en] A fast and simple method for the determination of the efficiency coefficient (η) of bare CR-39 detector is presented and discussed. The efficiency coefficient of bare CR-39 detector is then calculated by different ways and the obtained values are found to be comparable to each other. The average value of η of bare CR-39 is found to be 0.20 ± 0.01 tracks cm-2 day-1 per Bq m-3.