Results 1 - 10 of 625
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[en] This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)
[en] An inverted bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device based on blend of conjugated polymers and fullerenes derivatives with Cs2CO3/PVDF composites as an electron transporting layer. The entire device structure ((Cs2CO3/PVDF)/P3HT: PCBM/V2O5/Al) has been fabricated using spin coating method and the final metal contact was made using thermal evaporation technique. The mol % of Cs2CO3: PVDF ratio and the spin rate of electron transport and P3HT:PCBM was subjected to be varied and its device performance were evaluated using solar simulator under one sun condition. The physio-chemical characterizations such as UV-Visible, FTIR, PL, XRD, FESEM and AFM were performed for all the materials used in the device fabrications. By varying the spin rate of conjugated polymers/fullerene blends it may helps in scaling up of self-organized molecules of an active layer. Also the variation of spin rate will plays a role in the surface roughness of the film and thereby contributing enhancing the photo-conversion efficiency of fabricated devices. The device fabricated with optimized conditions under ambient atmosphere exhibits efficiency of 1.8 % with JSC of 5.8 mA/cm2 and VOC of 0.57 V. The performance of the device can be enhanced further by controlling exposure of electrode materials. (author)
[en] In this paper, the recent research progress on triphenylamine (TPA)-based donor-acceptor (D-A) amorphous polymers including our developed polymers is reviewed. TPA has three-dimensional branched structures and can provide D-A polymers containing D and A units in the main chain or side chain. The use of TPA-based amorphous polymers in the fabrication of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offers great advantages over the use of a polycrystalline film in terms of high reproducibility of the OPV performance. The amorphous polymer design using TPA, therefore, indicates a promising direction for the development of new donor materials in OPVs
[en] With the advancement of synthesis methods, boron nitride nanotubes seem to become increasingly valuable in fundamental physical research and find applications in a number of forms, from dyed neutron-absorbing fabrics to high-temperature catalysts and photovoltaic devices.
[en] The drop in the prices of photovoltaic systems appeared in 2011, this fall was due to the collapse of the price of the module that reached 45% in one year. Other components' prices have also decreased but not to such an extent. The reason is that the production capacities have increased very fast in 2010 when the offer was still below the demand. Now, in 2012 the sale of photovoltaic systems have slowed down because of the crisis and the partial end of financial support programs from European states. The market is now very competitive with low prices, but a lot of enterprises are expected to reorganize or even to bankrupt. For the rest of 2012 the trend is unknown but for a longer term new technological progress are looming: the replacement of silver by copper, the fabrication of thinner sheets of glass and the use of less expensive polymers. These technological advances will give a new and sane margin for the reduction of costs and will make photovoltaic energy more competitive with other energies. (A.C.)
[en] In a few years the number of photovoltaic plants to be decommissioned will begin to grow dramatically which will generate a huge need for the collect and recycling of old solar panels. A European association PV-Cycle proposes to set up a dedicated waste processing industry that will be able to recycle up to 85% of the wastes from old solar panels. 23 spots for recovering solar panels have been installed throughout Europe, the recovery of about 1000 to 1500 tons of equipment is expected for 2011. The German Sunicon enterprise has set up an automated process that combines thermal, mechanical and chemical processes in order to allow an almost complete recycling of glass and silicon into the solar panel industry. In a near future the capacity of Sunicon will pass from 800 tons to 20.000 tons a year. The American company First Solar organizes itself the recovery and recycling of the CdTe solar panels it manufactured. (A.C.)
[en] In December 2009, the city of Toronto adopted principles and targets for the city's sustainable energy future. The city plans to install 2 MW of solar photovoltaic panels in its facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of such a project, as well as further expansion of solar photovoltaic energy generation, from the economic development perspective. A literature review, online surveys and interviews with solar industries were carried out and a job estimation model was developed. Results showed that the 2 MW installation would create 53 person years of employment locally while expansion of the technology throughout the city could generate 100,000 local jobs. However this research also pointed out a lack of suitably qualified and experienced personnel Canada-wide. This study demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic industry has the potential to provide significant economic benefits in Toronto but that certification programs must be put in place to address the lack of qualified personnel.
[en] Tracking for particle physics instrumentation in SOI technology (TRAPPISTe-1) is an R and D project to study the feasibility of manufacturing a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) in silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. The first prototype of this series of sensors has been designed with a 2 μm SOI CMOS technology available in UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve. Simulations are presented for this prototype. Leakage measurements have been done on a photovoltaic cell, manufactured in the same process on a low-resistivity substrate. As a next step, a high-resistivity demonstrator will be designed.
[en] Except in few locations, photovoltaic generated electricity remains considerably more expensive than conventional sources. It is however expected that innovation and learning-by-doing will lead to drastic cuts in production cost in the near future. The goal of this paper is to predict the cost of PV modules out to 2020 using experience curve models, and to draw implications about the cost of PV electricity. Using annual data on photovoltaic module prices, cumulative production, R and D knowledge stock and input prices for silicon and silver over the period 1990–2011, we identify a experience curve model which minimizes the difference between predicted and actual module prices. This model predicts a 67% decrease of module price from 2011 to 2020. This rate implies that the cost of PV generated electricity will reach that of conventional electricity by 2020 in the sunniest countries with annual solar irradiation of 2000 kWh/year or more, such as California, Italy, and Spain. - Highlights: • We predict the cost of PV modules out to 2020 using experience curve models. • The model predicts a 67% decrease of module price from 2011 to 2020. • We draw implications about the cost of PV electricity
[en] Power conversion efficiency of solar cells is theoretically expected to have its maximum at an absorber energy band gap of Eg ≈ 1.4 eV, but experimentally it is found at Eg = 1.18 eV for ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells. In the present work, the explanation of this shift is sought in terms of optical losses through the window layer and interface recombination. The calculated results are compared with theoretical and experimental findings as reported in the literature. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.(author)