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[en] The energy demand all over the world is increasing rapidly day by day. In traditional power systems, power plants are located far away from the consumer’s premises. This in turn causes a substantial amount of power loss both in transmission and distribution. In general, distribution system has more losses than the losses occurred on the transmission side. It employs that there will be a significant difference between the generated power and the energy consumers that are (physically) far away from the generating stations. Therefore, the electric utilities always remain under stress due to such non negligible amount of losses which has a direct impact on financial management and efficiency of the power system as well. To address this issue different technique have been introduced to reduce line losses and to improve the efficiency. The best among these techniques is line loss reduction through Distributed Generation (DG) which is more effective than the other techniques. In this paper we have taken three 11kV feeders (located at Bannu) as a case study and for the prescribed technique an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of a system by integrating different capacity of DG into a radial distribution feeder. The results have been analyzed mathematically, however Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) simulator is used as a test bed. Finally, the obtained results are presented in tabular and graphical form in terms of clearly defined parameters. (author)
[en] Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, marine energies). This issue includes a chapter on the Regional plan for land use and sustainable development (sraddet), and a regional overview of the different electricity-producing renewable sectors. A focus is proposed for each French region.
[en] This publication presents the situation of biogas-fueled power plants in continental France and overseas territories during the Fourth quarter 2020: number of power plants, total connected load, new connected loads, power range distribution of facilities, evolution of park facilities and projection, distribution and production capacities by type of facilities, regional distribution of facilities (number, power, newly connected loads), overall national power generation from biogas and its evolution, focus on biogas facilities for power generation (annual and quarterly evolution, power range), regional power generation from biogas (number of facilities, power, newly connected loads).
[en] After a synthesis of the 4. quarter 2020 news and a focus on the implementation of the French solar energy development plan 'PlaceAuSoleil', this publication presents in a series of graphs the situation of photovoltaic energy development in France and in the whole world: evolution of the world's photovoltaic park (new and cumulated capacities), world comparison of production costs of new power generation capacities, photovoltaic power generation in France (photovoltaic share in the French power consumption, new connected capacities per surface size and for self-consumption, evolution of connected capacities rate, self-consumption market trend, residential market analysis and feed-in tariffs per surface size, pending projects, evolution of feed-in tariffs in continental France, extra public burdens induced by new connections with respect to surface size.
[en] The power generation strategy for 2010-2030 was adopted in 2010 under the Power Sector Master Plan 2010 (PSMP 2010). The generation plan is based on the target of achieving 8% average GDP growth and the Government’s target to ensure that electricity reaches every household by 2021. Based on these targets and peak load demand forecast, the PSMP 2010 set installed generation capacity targets of 23,000 MW by 2020 (end of Seventh Five years Plan); 24,000 MW by 2021; and 40,000 MW by 2030, of which nuclear power will contribute up to 10% of total generation. Bangladesh considered implementation of nuclear power project in the early 1960s. Accordingly, Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant project site was selected in 1963 by considering various criteria acceptable at the international level and local conditions such as its geographical location with respect to electrical load distribution of the west zone. The feasibilities in 1960s and in the 1977-78 and 1988 - 89 had identified, affirmed and reaffirmed the technical, economic and financial viability of the Rooppur NPP Project, but the country did not go on to build the nuclear plant. Earlier the project could not be implemented because of resource constraints. It is worth mentioning that financing has been identified as one of the roadblocks and challenges in implementation of the Rooppur NPP. The introduction of nuclear power became a reality for Bangladesh, and the implementation of the NPP project became an Election Pledge by all political parties in 2008. The government has taken practical steps for implementation of the project since 2009. A decision for immediate implementation of the NPP was taken by the national parliament in 2010. A significant number of progresses were made for the implementation of nuclear power program in the country with the partnership of Russian Federation.
[en] Whereas the French law related to energy transition for a green growth defined the objective of energy self-sufficiency in overseas territories by 2030 (i.e. a higher objective than for the metropolitan mainland), this report proposes a synthesis and comparative analysis of studies performed for 6 territories (Mayotte, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Guyana by 2030, and Corsica by 2050). The main lessons learned from these studies are highlighted: possibility of a 100 pc renewable electricity mix, issue of energy management, high reduction of the importance of Diesel plants, significant share of varying wind and photovoltaic energies, decrease of the costs of the produced energy, electricity systems appeared to be steady. It discusses the context and conditions to reach the defined objectives. It presents the methodology and main hypotheses of the performed studies: elaboration of a data set, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the electricity mix for 5 scenarios, ex-post economic analysis, modelling of the 5 scenarios for each territory. Results are globally presented (an expected decrease of global costs of electricity, an electricity system which could remain steady in front of significant incidents), and the limitations and perspectives of the study are discussed. Results are then presented for the six different territories (data in 2017 and 2030, renewable potentials, mix analysis for each scenario, economic analysis of scenarios, focus on a specific scenario).
[fr]La loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte (LTECV) a fixe comme objectif de parvenir a l'autonomie energetique dans les departements et regions d'outre-mer (DROM) a l'horizon 2030. La Collectivite Territoriale de Corse vise ce meme objectif pour 2050. L'ADEME a souhaite mener une etude pour evaluer les implications techniques, organisationnelles et economiques qu'aurait un mix electrique tres fo tement renouvelable dans ces territoires, pour la majorite insulaires (Mayotte, La Reunion, la Guadeloupe, la Martinique, la Guyane et la Corse). Le vecteur electrique, permettant une production locale basee sur les energies renouvelables, et adapte a de multiples usages en substitution a des energies fossiles importees, pourrait jouer un role preponderant pour atteindre cet objectif ambitieux d'autonomie energetique. A l'heure de la revision des Programmations Pluriannuelles de l'Energie des ZNI (PPE), cette etude se veut un outil d'aide pour les instances decisionnelles afin de nourrir la reflexion des parties prenantes et ouvrir le champ des possibles.
[en] This publication comments the content of a report issued by RTE and the IEA on the conditions for a technical feasibility of scenarios exhibiting a high penetration of renewable energies (ENR) in France. It indicates the four conditions to be met for a security of supply and for the integration of very high proportion of renewable energies into a large scale electricity system: stability of the electricity system, supply security, operational reserves, grid development. These four conditions and the associated technical feasibilities stated in the RTE-IAE report are then discussed. The authors finally discuss whether a 100 pc renewable energy objective is actually to be wished.
[en] After a discussion of the characterization of the security of supply (match between supply and demand on the long and medium terms), and having shown that the planned closure of steerable capacities in Europe should be better taken into account in order to guarantee the security of supply before 2030, this note comments the rate of development of intermittent renewable energies. It notices that these energies have a smaller guaranteed power, outlines that France, Germany and Belgium display the highest deficits of steerable power, that a high share of intermittent renewable energy within the energy mix increases the probability of grid destabilization, and increases the steering complexity, and that it is necessary to adapt grids and to develop demand flexibility. The authors outline that energy transition is poorly coordinated at the European level, which increases this weakening. Some recommendations are finally stated. An appendix presents the main hypotheses, uncertainties and observations related to this study.
[en] Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to 2040, where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programs and fuel cycle developments. In 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of electricity security in modern societies. Although the long-term implications for electricity generation are difficult to assess, during the crisis nuclear power continued to support the security of supply and has been, together with renewables, one of the most resilient electricity sources. In 2019, nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in countries such as Finland, Hungary, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Russia. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link
[fr]Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux preparee par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays membres de l'AEN et dans la zone de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les capacites et les besoins du cycle du combustible et, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2040. Les rapports nationaux proposent une synthese des politiques energetiques, de la situation des programmes electronucleaires et des evolutions du cycle du combustible. En 2020, la pandemie de COVID-19 a mis en avant l'importance de la securite de l'approvisionnement en electricite dans nos societes modernes. S'il est difficile d'evaluer les consequences a long terme sur la production d'electricite, on observe que, pendant la crise, l'energie nucleaire a continue de soutenir la securite d'approvisionnement et demeure, avec les renouvelables, l'une des sources d'electricite les plus resilientes. En 2019, les centrales nucleaires ont continue de fournir de grandes quantites d'electricite en base faiblement carbonee, et ce dans un contexte de forte concurrence avec les combustibles fossiles bon marche et les energies renouvelables. Les pays decides a inclure ou conserver le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de deploiement ou d'augmentation de leur puissance nucleaire installee. Ainsi, des projets de construction progressent en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume- Uni, en Russie et en Turquie. De plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements sont fournies dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage. Cette publication contient des 'StatLinks'. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante
[en] After the statement of several propositions and recommendations, this report states and discusses the option of the CESE on the content of the bill project related to the struggle against climate change. It addresses different issues which correspond to different chapters of this bill project: mobility (alternatives to individual vehicles and cleaner vehicles, optimization of goods road transport, better organisation of mobility, limitation of emissions by air transport and development of train-plane inter-modality), housing (building renovation, decrease of energy consumption, struggle against artificialization of soils, protection of ecosystems), food (support to a healthy, sustainable and low-emitting food), consumption (information and education, advertising regulation, development of bulk selling and of returnable glass), production and work (economy greening, adaptation of work to ecological transition, protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, renewable energies for all and by all). Some transverse recommendations are also stated regarding the funding of climate policies, the general design of policies and of governance, and the arrangement for objective follow-up and correction of noticed deviations.
[fr]Le CESE, saisi par le Premier ministre, a examine le projet de loi portant lutte contre le dereglement climatique et renforcement de la resilience face a ses effets. Cette loi doit permettre d'atteindre les objectifs fixes au niveau national et international, dans un esprit de justice sociale. Le CESE s'est prononce a plusieurs reprises sur la politique climatique et a constate que la France ne se situe pas sur les trajectoires prevues par sa Strategie nationale bas-carbone. Ce projet de loi ne parait pas en mesure de redresser la situation climatique et de prendre en compte les inegalites sociales. Alors qu'il faudrait tripler le rythme annuel de reduction des emissions et les diviser par six d'ici 2050, les mesures apparaissent souvent limitees, differees ou soumises a des conditions telles que leur mise en oeuvre a terme rapproche est incertaine. Les rares estimations d'impact fournies font apparaitre leur insuffisance. Le CESE assortit ses analyses de preconisations pour progresser.