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[en] This article first proposes a presentation of the tidal theory and outlines the roles of Newton (to know the phenomenon), Laplace (to understand it) and Poincare (to act on it). The author then describes some tidal characteristics, notice than they can be different in different locations of the planet in frequency (two tides a day here, one tide a day there, or negligible) as well as in amplitude. Then, he addresses the history of cycles of use of tides, notably by exploiting the filling and emptying of basins by means of turbines (simple effect dam, double effect dam, pumping). He evokes some historical projects of tidal power plants in France, and then more particularly the Rance tidal power plant project, the Chausey and Minquiers projects. Article published in 'L'Astronomie' journal, Vol. 69, Dec. 1955, p.449-469.
[en] The authors propose an overview of the history and development of atomic piles. They first describe the process of evolution from the discovery of radioactivity to the creation of the first atomic pile (emergence of nuclear physics, to draw usable energy from matter, to achieve a chain reaction from uranium fission, creation of atomic piles). They describe various aspects of a typical atomic pile, such as the Chicago's one, by describing operating conditions, practical achievements, the pile control, implemented safeties, power measurement, high power piles, pile lifetime, and personnel protection. Then, they address the use of experimental piles, notably for plutonium production (brief description of some piles, description of the Chatillon pile and of Bepo). They propose an overview of the current status of pile technology (consequences of first acquisitions, trends of evolution), and present some new piles (Lopo-Hypo piles, Los Alamos fast reactor). They give an overview of the main innovations published and implemented in 1952. Reprint of a paper published in 'Electricite' journal, March 1953, p. 3-11.
[en] After having published during the year 1953 several articles on atomic piles, written by engineers of the CEA, which gave very interesting information on the construction, the operation and the control of the pile, and at a time when all nations are considering the peaceful uses of atomic energy, this series of articles is concluded by a remarkable study of Mr. Kowarski, one of the most well-known specialists, on using atomic piles for the generation of electrical energy; after a review of uranium nuclear properties this paper gives a clear picture of the opportunities that are available today and those that may be considered in the near future: pure fissile matter combustion, pure fissile matter simultaneous combustion and production, power and plutonium production from natural uranium, natural uranium piles that solely produce power. Reprint of a paper published in 'Electricite' journal, Jan 1954, p. 3-8.
[fr]Nous avons eu le plaisir de publier au cours de l'annee 1953 plusieurs articles sur les piles atomiques, rediges par des ingenieurs du Commissariat de l'Energie Atomique, qui ont donne de tres interessants renseignements sur la construction, le fonctionnement et le reglage des piles. A l'heure ou toutes les nations envisagent les utilisations pacifiques de l'energie atomique, nous sommes heureux de conclure cette serie d'articles par une etude remarquable de M. Kowarski, l'un des specialistes les plus connus, sur l'emploi des piles atomiques pour la production de l'energie electrique. Il y fait le point avec precision des possibilites qui s'offrent actuellement a nous et de celles qu'on peut envisager dans un avenir prochain. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Electricite', janvier 1954, p. 3-8.