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[en] The purpose of this paper is to indicate the vast gap in the utilisation of nuclear power between advanced and developing countries, identify some of the major problems encountered in the introduction of nuclear power into developing countries and suggest some possible approaches to overcome them.
[en] On March 2 the Agency was host to the three Apollo-12 astronauts who placed the first atomic power generator on the moon. Accompanied by their wives, they were given a warm welcome and received mementos prepared by the Agency. In return they presented the Director General with a model of the SNAP-27 generator. (author)
[en] The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''
[en] Nuclear power reactors are complicated structures. They may contain tens of thousands of pieces of fuel enclosed in canisters of specially designed alloys. Watch has to be kept on each piece - or fuel element - in case something goes wrong with one of them. Experts called together by the Agency have considered the ways in which this can be done. (author)
[en] This section deals with MHD open cycle systems designed for electrical power generation. The ultimate aim is to generate, from a given thermal power, the maximum amount of electrical power for as long a period as possible. All the papers can be classified according to these criteria
[en] Since the very beginnings of power production from.nuclear energy, experience, with these plants has naturally been of great and widespread interest. On the one hand, it serves as a basis for improvements in design and operating procedures, on the other hand, it indicates the extent, to which plants of a particular type have achieved and maintained satisfactory performance. Operating experience with individual plants or those in a particular country, has been reported at numerous scientific meetings, in scientific journals, and elsewhere. The object of this report is to gather together the considerable amount of information available on experience with these plants and present it in a convenient summarized form.
[en] Atomic energy has been operating on the moon since the flight in November of Apollo 12. Astronauts Charles Conrad and Allan Bean, the second pair of men to walk on the surface of the moon, took with them a nuclear generator and set it in position to provide the electricity to operate scientific instruments and subsystems which are providing continuing information. In his report at the end of 1969 Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission, was able to report that the generator was successfully withstanding immense temperature variations. Some details are given in this article. (author)
[en] Geothermal energy is not a new concept. Naturally occurring hot water has been used for centuries in Iceland for heating purposes. About 20% of Klamath Falls, Oregon is today heated by hot water from geothermal wells. The generation of electricity is a relatively new use for geothermal energy which has developed over the last half century. There are plants in operation in Italy, New Zealand and the U. S.; these have a total capacity of more than 700 MWe. Geothermal generation is being explored and developed today in Japan, USSR, Mexico, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Whenever a favorable combination of recent magmatic intrusion and favorable groundwater conditions occurs to create the necessary steam conditions it is usually economic to build a generating plant. With fuel essentially free the plants are usually economically competitive even in small sizes. Naturally occurring geothermal steam sites are rather limited. Witness to this statement can be found in the small number of plants (less than a dozen) in operation or under construction. On the other hand, geothermal anomalies are prevalent in every one of the world's continents. The possible coupling of Plowshare with geothermal power tp produce electricity is based on the idea to use rock crushing power of nuclear device to produce large cavity filled with broken rock from which the sensible heat can be removed. This paper is based on preliminary analysis of the concept. It is recognized that a more in-depth feasibility study is required before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a demonstration experiment is required to prove the concept in practical application
[en] The Agency's latest survey of power and research reactors in Member States shows that by the end of 1969 there will be 479 reactors operating. Of these, 105 are power reactors generating nearly 20 000 megawatts of electricity in 15 countries. The other 374 are for research, testing and training purposes in 48 countries. (author)