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[en] Radioisotope, radiopharmaceutical and cyclotron technologies are extensively developed, increasing the contribution to solve the problem of community. Radioisotopes can be produced by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor or by irradiation of charged particles using a cyclotron. Along with the development of radioisotope technology, new radioisotopes or new radioisotope production methods have been successfully developed. Cyclotron utilization technology continues to evolve by utilizing high energy charged particles. Several radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production technologies, as well as the utilization of cyclotron have been successfully developed in Indonesia. Research and development results in the form of diagnostic agents, therapeutic agents, radioassay technologies and radioactive tracers have been successfully obtained. In the development of diagnostic agents, several diagnostic radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production technologies have been successfully developed. Some of the production technologies have been utilized by pharmaceutical industry to meet the needs of community. In therapeutic agent, production technologies of therapeutic radioisotope, therapeutic radiopharmaceutical and sealed source have been developed. In radioassay technology development, production technologies of radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits and the utilization of radioligand binding assay (RBA) have been successfully developed. In the radioactive tracers, production technologies of tracers for industry, biomedical research, natural resources and the environment management have been successfully obtained. The next challenge is the utilization of the technologies, so that the technologies are more beneficial to the community. In the utilization of the technologies, intensive cooperation among research and development institutions, industries, users and regulatory bodies are required. (author)
[en] Cotton is a major export commodity of Pakistan. It is affected by variable environmental conditions throughout the country which limits its production. A 2-year field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of six sowing dates on yield and quality attributes of four cotton genotypes. The experiments were laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots treatments were six sowing dates, namely March 20, April 4, April 19, May 4, May 19, and June 3 while subplots treatments were four approved transgenic varieties of cotton (CIM-598, CIM-599, CIM-602, and Ali Akber-703). Results revealed that earlier planting produced more vegetative growth rather than lint yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield and quality. The results further indicate that the genotype CIM-599 scored first rank in number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness, and fiber uniformity when sown on April 19. CIM-598 was the next suitable genotype after CIM-599 which produced higher yield and quality traits in April 19 sowing. Earlier and later sowing than April 19 resulted in lower cotton yield and quality characters due to unfavorable environmental conditions and shorter growth period, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-599 sown on April 19 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. (author)
[en] In the general MSSM, first and second generation squarks and gluinos may be sufficiently light to be produced and studied at e+e- colliders operating in the 0.5-1 TeV energy range. After a reminder that the MSSM is not the same as mSUGRA, we provide a brief overview of these possibilities within this more general framework. Squarks and gluinos may be light enough to be produced at an e+e- collider operating in the 0.5-1 TeV energy range in non-mSUGRA SUSY breaking scenarios. The decays of such particles, though always leading to jets, may or may not produce ME depending on the nature of the SUSY spectrum. The electroweak properties of the squarks can be determined using polarized beams and production cross section measurements. The simultaneous production of essentially degenerate 1st and 2nd generation squarks can be problematic although efficient charm tagging would be helpful. If (some) squarks are heavier than gluinos then gluinos may be best studied as squark decay products. If gluinos are heavier than squarks, associated production can lead to an unambiguous, although small, production cross section somewhat below ∼ 1 fb. Gluino pair production is perhaps more interesting as the cross section for this process involves the entire strongly interacting sector of the MSSM. The rate is expected to be rather small for this process in the case of mSUGRA but has not been well-studied in the more general MSSM.
[en] Farmers are commercially cultivated tomato with different levels of shoot pruning but this production practice has not been defined clearly. The experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to assess the effect of different levels of debranching on morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters in determinate tomato cultivar cv. Binatomato-5. The debranching levels were: i) control, ii) only main stem (MS), iii) MS with 2 branches, iv) MS with 3 branches and v) MS with 4 branches. Based on recommended spacing (50 cm * 50 cm), the higher fruit yield plant-1 as well as fruit yield per hectare were observed in more branch bearing plants of the treatment control (MS with 5-6 branches), MS with 3 branches and MS with 4 branches due to production of higher number of fruits plant-1 with being the highest in MS with 3 branches due to increase fruit size. The lowest fruit yield per plant as well as per hectare was observed in uniculm plants due to lower number of fruits per plant. This study suggests that plants that have MS with three branches may be recommended for commercial cultivation of tomato under sub-tropical condition. (author)
[en] Conclusions: Two complementary approach: • Reference set of codes: – Progressive extension of the application domain; – Performance improvement Simplified code for PRA. Code assessment: • Existing experimental data base; • EAGLE 1&2; • SAIGA; • FOURNAISE
[en] A compact ECR plasma device was built in our lab using the 'spare parts' of the ATOMKI ECR ion source. We call it 'ECR Table Plasma Generator'. It consists of a relatively big plasma chamber (ID=10 cm, L=40 cm) in a thin NdFeB hexapole magnet with independent vacuum and gas dosing systems. For microwave coupling two low power TWTAs (Travelling Wave tube amplifier) can be applied individually or simultaneously, operating in the 6-18 GHz range. There is no axial magnetic trap and there is no extraction. The technical details of the plasma generator and preliminary plasma photo study results are shown. This paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)
[en] The fabrication of the isotopes used in nuclear medicine is mainly made in research reactors. Furthermore reactors are necessary for the production of Mo99 whose daughter nucleus Tc99 is used in 80% of medical diagnostics worldwide. Today about 50 reactors produce medical radionuclides but only 15 of them, the most powerful ones, supply the international market. As soon as the fifties, CEA has been producing radionuclides, first in the Zoe reactor and then unceasingly in its successive experimental reactors: EL2, EL3 in Saclay, Melusine, Siloe in Grenoble and Osiris and Orphee again in Saclay. The Jules Horowitz reactor under construction in Cadarache will take over in a few years. Radiochemistry plays an important role in the extraction and purification of the radionuclide. (A.C.)
[en] The main tools for the production of radionuclides for medicine are nuclear reactors and accelerators especially cyclotrons and linear accelerators. About 30 reactors over the world share isotope production. Two types of reactors are used to produce radio-nuclides: experimental reactors and neutron source reactors. In a reactor, radionuclides are produced through either fission reactions or neutron activation reactions. For instance the Technetium-99 whose daughter isotope Molybdenum-99 is used in scintigraphy is produced through the fission of Uranium-235 target, its fission yield being over 6%. The most important experimental reactors having a radioisotope production program are HFR (45 MW, The Netherlands), BR2 (100 MW, Belgium), NRU (135 MW, Canada), MARIA (30 MW, Poland), LVR-15 (10 MW, Czech Republic), SAFARI-1 (20 MW, South-Africa) and FRM-II (20 MW, Germany). Neutron source reactors are less powerful a few MW and produce radionuclides through neutron activation reactions. In France 2 neutron source reactors produce radionuclides for medicine: the Orphee reactor (14 MW, at Saclay) and the RHF (58 MW at Grenoble). (A.C.)
[en] This study was conducted to generate knowledge about silvicultural management in the establishment of Gmelina arborea plantations located at department of Tolima, Colombia. The objective was to quantify the individual and combined effects of weed control and fertilization with N-PK-Mg on the growth of individual trees of G. arborea. The evaluation used analysis of variance (ANOVA) considering a block design with split plots arrangement, being the response variables: periodic annual increment (PAI) in diameter, total height, basal area and total volume inside the bark. ANOVA allowed to infer that there are no significant response differences among the application of one to three chemical weed control per year. However, the absence of weed control reduced the PAI in diameter by 22% and 3% in total volume inside bark. Fertilization was the main factor influencing the PAI in diameter, total height, basal area and total volume inside bark. To conclude, the best treatment consisted of a combination of two weed controls per year and the use of a high dose of fertilizer (N = 60 g = 30 g P2O5, K2O = 120 g, Mg = 68 g). This combination increased the PAI in diameter by 29%, total height by 15% , area basal by 30% and total volume inside bark by 15% when compared with control plots.
[en] The theme of this research was to analyze the stochastic frontier production of tobacco growers. This parametric approach was encompassed to investigate the technical efficiency of growers. The primary data was gleaned during 2014-15 from sampled population of three villages namely Takkar Kali, Garo Shah and Passand Kali of Takhtbhai Tehsil, Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The multi-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain the desired sample size of 120 tobacco growers. The major findings of stochastic production frontier analysis indicate that all variables were statistically significant and have portrayed positive contribution to tobacco production except fertilizer which was found significant but has revealed inverse relation with tobacco production. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 0.85 depicting that tobacco growers can further amplify efficiency by 15% with given level of inputs. The inefficiency model estimates demonstrate that only experience of tobacco growers in study area was significantly decreasing the inefficiency of the growers. The study has concluded that tobacco growers are operating in the second stage of production; therefore, tobacco production can still be enhanced. It is recommended that season long trainings for tobacco growers may be undertaken by the concerned authorities to enhance the crop management skills for rational use of input. (author)