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[en] cAMP effects have been initially attributed to protein kinase A (PKA) activation. Subsequently, two exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1/2) have been identified as cAMP targets. Aim of this study was to investigate cAMP effects in pancreatic-NET (P-NET) and bronchial carcinoids and in corresponding cell lines (QGP-1 and H727) on cell proliferation and adhesion and to determine PKA and Epac role in mediating these effects. We found that cAMP increased cyclin D1 expression in P-NET and QGP-1 cells, whereas it had opposite effects on bronchial carcinoids and H727 cells and it promoted cell adhesion in QGP-1 and H727 cells. These effects are mimicked by Epac and PKA specific analogs, activating the small GTPase Rap1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cAMP exerted divergent effects on proliferation and promoted cell adhesion of different neuroendocrine cell types, these effects being mediated by both Epac and PKA and involving the same effector GTPase Rap1. - Highlights: • cAMP increased and decreased cell proliferation in different neuroendocrine cells. • cAMP divergent effects on proliferation are mimicked by both Epac and PKA. • cAMP and its effectors promoted cell adhesion in neuroendocrine tumor cells. • Epac and PKA act through the activation of same effector, Ras-like GTP-ase Rap1.
[en] Cell division, in which duplicated chromosomes are separated into two daughter cells, is the most dynamic event during cell proliferation. Chromosome movement is powered mainly by microtubules, which vary in morphology and are organized into characteristic structures according to mitotic progression. During the later stages of mitosis, antiparallel microtubules form the spindle midzone, and the irregular formation of the midzone often leads to failure of cytokinesis, giving rise to the unequal segregation of chromosomes. However, it is difficult to analyze the morphology of these microtubules because microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends in the midzone are embedded in highly electron-dense matrices, impeding the access of anti-tubulin antibodies to their epitopes during immunofluorescence staining. Here, we developed a novel method to visualize selectively antiparallel microtubule overlaps in the midzone. When cells are air-dried before fixation, aligned α-tubulin staining is observed and colocalized with PRC1 in the center of the midzone of anaphase and telophase cells, suggesting that antiparallel microtubule overlaps can be visualized by this method. In air-dried cells, mCherry-α-tubulin fluorescence and β-tubulin staining show almost the same pattern as α-tubulin staining in the midzone, suggesting that the selective visualization of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in air-dried cells is not attributed to an alteration of the antigenicity of α-tubulin. Taxol treatment extends the microtubule filaments of the midzone in air-dried cells, and nocodazole treatment conversely decreases the number of microtubules, suggesting that unstable microtubules are depolymerized during the air-drying method. It is of note that the air-drying method enables the detection of the disruption of the midzone and premature midzone formation upon Aurora B and Plk1 inhibition, respectively. These results suggest that the air-drying method is suitable for visualizing microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends of the midzone and for detecting their effects on midzone formation. - Highlights: • A novel method to visualize antiparallel microtubule overlaps is developed. • Unstable microtubules are depolymerized during an air-drying method. • This method can detect the effect of compounds on antiparallel microtubule overlaps.
[en] Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma has not been completely characterized. Numerous studies have shown that altered splicing patterns and splicing factors were found to contribute to tumor development and progression. In this study, we demonstrated that spliceosome-associated factor CTNNBL1 was significantly upregulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, the elevated level of CTNNBL1 indicates poor prognosis in patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Functional characterization revealed that CTNNBL1 promoted the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, through transcriptome analysis, we found CTNNBL1 regulates multiple splicing events and gene expression in ovarian cancer cells. Importantly, we identified IFI16 and FOXM1 splicing was regulated by CTNNBL1. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the expression, functional roles and regulated splicing events of CTNNBL1 in ovarian cancer. - Highlights: • CTNNBL1 was upregulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma and associated with poor prognosis. • CTNNBL1 promoted the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. • Transcriptome analysis showed CTNNBL1 regulates multiple splicing events and gene expression in ovarian cancer cells. • FOXM1and IFI16 splicing were regulated by CTNNBL1.
[en] Neuromedin B (NMB), a mammalian bombesin-like peptide, regulates diverse physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, memory and fear behavior, and cellular growth, through its cognate receptor, NMBR. In this study, we report that NMB expression was upregulated during osteoclast development and that silencing NMB or NMBR attenuated osteoclast generation mediated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that knockdown of NMB or NMBR using a small hairpin RNA suppressed M-CSF-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without altering osteoclast differentiation. Interestingly, NMB or NMBR knockdown reduced the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, which is an important modulator of osteoclast development. Consequently, NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF/c-Fms-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK and Akt and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. Moreover, knockdown of NMB or NMBR accelerated apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells by inducing caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bim expression. In summary, our study demonstrates that the NMB/NMBR axis plays a pivotal role in osteoclast generation by modulating the proliferation and survival of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • NMB and NMBR expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • NMB/NMBR axis regulates osteoclast generation mediated by M-CSF and RANKL. • NMB/NMBR silencing suppresses M-CSF-induced osteoclast precursor proliferation. • NMB/NMBR silencing accelerates apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells.
[en] Cutaneous wound healing is a highly coordinated physiological process that rapidly and efficiently restores skin integrity. Reepithelization is a crucial step during wound healing, which involves migration and proliferation of keratinocytes to cover the denuded dermal surface. Recent advances in wound biology clarified the molecular pathways governing keratinocyte reepithelization at wound sites. These new findings point towards novel therapeutic targets and provide suitable methods to promote faster tissue regeneration in vivo
[en] Upregulation of glycolysis was often observed in human HER2-overexpressing cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that KU004, a dual novel EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, disrupted cancer cell proliferation via modulation of glycolysis. KU004, inhibited the Warburg effect by suppressing hexokinase II (HK2) expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Further study demonstrated that the downregulation of HKII by KU004 was mainly mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the role of HKII downregulation in KU004-mediated antitumor effect was also confirmed in our in vivo xenograft model. Collectively, these data suggest that multifaceted targeting the aberrant glucose metabolism along with the upstream HER2 may be an effective approach for clinical treatment against HER2+ cancer. - Highlights: • KU004suppressed the glucose metabolism in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. • KU004 inhibited HKII expression both transcriptionally and post-translationally. • The downregulation of HKII is mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. • KU004 inhibited HKII expression and the growth of HER2-overexpressing cells both in vitro and in vivo.
[en] Proviral insertion in murine (PIM) lymphoma proteins are mainly regulated by the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway, which can be activated by members of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, including Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF). Aim of the study was to compare PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3 expression and potential cellular functions in human first and third trimester trophoblast cells, the immortalized first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo and the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Expression was analyzed by qPCR and immunochemical staining. Functions were evaluated by PIM inhibition followed by analysis of kinetics of cell viability as assessed by MTS assay, proliferation by BrdU assay, and apoptosis by Western blotting for BAD, BCL-XL, (cleaved) PARP, CASP3 and c-MYC. Apoptosis and necrosis were tested by flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide staining). All analyzed PIM kinases are expressed in primary trophoblast cells and both cell lines and are regulated upon stimulation with LIF. Inhibition of PIM kinases significantly reduces viability and proliferation and induces apoptosis. Simultaneously, phosphorylation of c-MYC was reduced. These results demonstrate the involvement of PIM kinases in LIF-induced regulation in different trophoblastic cell lines which may indicate similar functions in primary cells.
[en] The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) serves various physiological and pathological roles such as enhancing tumour-related processes including metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular viability and telomerase activation in cancerous cell lines. The present study investigates the effect of siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR on pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. MTT and BrdU assays revealed that siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability and cell proliferation. In addition, knock-down of LRP resulted in phosphatidylserine externalization, diminished nuclear integrity and significantly enhanced caspase-3 activity, which is indicative of apoptosis. LRP downregulation resulted in a significant increase in caspase-8 activity in IMR-32 cells and enhanced caspase-8 and 9 activity in AsPC-1 cells. These data recommend siRNA mediated knock-down of LRP as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and neuroblastoma. - Highlights: • siRNA mediated knock-down of LRP reduces cell viability of IMR-32 and AsPC-1 cells. • siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP causes apoptosis in IMR-32 and AsPC-1 cells. • knock-down of LRP diminishes nuclear integrity and enhances caspase-3 activity in IMR-32 and AsPC-1 cells. • LRP downregulation resulted in an increase in caspase-8 activity without increase in caspase-9 activity in IMR-32 cells. • Downregulation of LRP enhances caspase-8 and 9 activity in AsPC-1 cells.
[en] Molecular mechanisms underlying the different capacity of two in vivo selected human melanoma cell variants to form experimental metastases were studied. The doubling times of the FEMX-I and FEMX-V cell sublines in vitro were 15 and 25 h, respectively. The invasive capacity of FEMX-I cells was 8-fold higher than FEMX-V cells, and the time to form approximately 10 mm s.c. tumors in nude mice was 21 versus 35 days. FEMX-I displayed a spindle-like formation in vitro, whereas FEMX-V cells had a rounded shape. Hence, we examined known determinants of cell shape and proliferation, the small GTPases. The four studied showed equal expression in both cell types, but Rac1 activity was significantly decreased in FEMX-V cells. Rac1 stimulates NFκB, and we found that endogenous NFκB activity of FEMX-V cells was 2% of that of FEMX-I cells. Inhibition of Rac1 resulted in blocked NFκB activity. Specific inhibition of either Rac1 or NFκB significantly reduced proliferation and invasion of FEMX-I cells, the more pronounced effects observed with Rac1 inhibition. These data indicate that Rac1 activity in FEMX cells regulates cell proliferation and invasion, in part via its effect on NFκB, signifying Rac1 as a key molecule in melanoma progression and metastasis
[en] Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis regulates cellular levels of various proteins, and therefore plays important roles in controlling cell signaling and disease progression. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP is recognized as an important negative regulator for numerous key signaling proteins. Recently, the deubiquitinases (DUBs) have turned out to be essential to regulate signaling pathways related to human diseases. However, whether β-TrCP is able to regulate the deubiquitinase family members remains largely unexplored. Here, we found that β-TrCP downregulated cellular levels of endogenous USP33. We also revealed that β-TrCP interacted with USP33 independently of the classic binding motif for β-TrCP, and mediated USP33 degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Furthermore, we found that the WD40 motif of β-TrCP and 201–400 amino acid motif of USP33 are required for the interaction between β-TrCP and USP33. Consequently, β-TrCP attenuated USP33-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and cell invasion. Taken together, our study clarified that the E3 ligase β-TrCP regulates cellular USP33 levels by the ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolysis. - Highlights: •β-TrCP downregulates protein levels of USP33. •β-TrCP promotes USP33 ubiquitination and degradation. • The effect of β-TrCP on USP33 is independent of DSG motif. • β-TrCP attenuates USP33-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and invasion.